Presentation on theme: "THE FOUNDING OF GEORGIA The 13 th colony in British North America."— Presentation transcript:
THE FOUNDING OF GEORGIA The 13 th colony in British North America
Spanish conquistadors searching for gold explored the southeast and southwest NA in the 16 th century. Hernando Desoto led the unsuccessful expedition in the SE (1539-1542). Afterwards, the Spanish largely left NA to the British and French.
1. Increase the power of the monarch 2. Mercantilism 3. Religious freedom of individuals persecuted in Catholic countries
British Mercantilism Mercantilism is an economic idea (policy) whereby a country tries to gain wealth by exporting more than the country imports. Mercantilism runs counter to the idea of free trade British colonies provided Britain with raw materials Some of these materials were turned into manufactured goods These goods would be resold to the colonists Colonists were basically a “captive market”
Mercantilism Draw a circle on the left side of the paper and label it American Colonies Draw a circle on the right side and label it Great Britain. Draw arrows showing that Britain engaged in trade with the American colonies. Label the arrows to show the flow of trade: Raw Materials Finished Goods
Jamestown: 1607 The first permanent English settlement in NA. Formed as a joint- stock company the colony was poorly planned but did survive. Question: How many years between the first and last English colony’s settlement in NA?
Labor sources in the New World Free Labor: Many English immigrates came as free men and owned small farms (yeoman farmers). Unusual on this scale at that time. Indentured servants: Those who agreed to work for a number of years in exchange for passage to New World. Slavery: First African slaves arrive 1619. Soon becomes main agricultural labor source.
Aristocratic English landowner Wished to help the working poor Encouraged formation of 13 th colony Lived at Savannah Won battle of Bloody Marsh Friend of Tomochichi’s
Reasons for the Founding of the colony of Georgia Charity (philanthropy): Provide the worthy poor with a new start in life Mercantilism: Provide Britain with raw materials. Georgia was to provide silk (mulberry) and indigo (blue dye). Also grapes, hemp, and other crops. Defense: The new colony would be a defensive buffer between the Carolinas and Spanish Florida. Religion (not stated in charter): Provide religious sanctuary (safety).
The Trustee Arrangement A trustee is legally responsible for the welfare of another person or institution Georgia was the only trustee colony in British NA The trustees were a group of wealthy men in Britain in charge of oversight of Ga.’s affairs (they were not paid)
Georgia’s Colonial Charter A charter is a document that states the purpose of the organization or provides for its legal status King George II signed in 1732 Three reasons for colony stated in charter
Georgia colony was Oglethorpe's “utopian” vision for a community of sober, hard working, socially responsible protestant Christians. The colonists were discouraged from being “profit-minded” Several groups of people were banned including lawyers Catholics banned from colony No hard liquor No slavery Limited land ownership (500 acres) Only male heirs No sale of land Colonists had to pledge to join militia to defend colony
Savannah was very unusual in that it was a pre-planned city. Most of the planning was done in England. The plan was very English with a number of town squares devoted to some special purpose. Have you ever been to the squares in historic Savannah?
Life in colonial Georgia The Anne landed at Yamacraw bluff in February 1733 after stopping off at Charleston. Weather was rough, conditions were hard. Within 6 months nearly 40% of colonists were dead. Lack of potable water was a big problem until a well was sunk Oglethorpe lived with the colonists and endured their trials
Oglethorpe meets with Tomochichi: Mary Musgrove is at center The Yamacraw Indians and the trader Mary Musgrove proved very important to the survival of the young colony. Question: What is a cultural liason?
The Malcontent Immigrants Jewish Immigrants: Arrived 1733 and eventually founded one of the oldest synagogues in NA Scotts at Darien: Very important as militia Salzburgers: Fled persecution in Catholic Austria and settled in Georgia ( Picture: Lutheran Church at Ebenezer)
Battle of Bloody Marsh In 1742 General Oglethorpe led a group of soldiers, many of them Scottish immigrants, to victory over a small Spanish force Near Fort Fredericka on St Simons island Because of terrain, battle gained its name Part of War of Jenkin’s Ear (1742-44)
What happened to trustee Georgia? Most colonists disliked colony regulations- particularly ban on slavery and landholding. In 1750 trustees lifted slavery ban to try to save colony. In 1752 trustees signed over control to British government The noble experiment was over. Georgia was now a Royal colony.
Essential Questions or statements: How did economics influence the settling of North America? If you had been a trustee, how would you have changed the regulations to provide more incentive for the colonists? List at least one positive and one negative outcome of the founding of Georgia.