Presentation on theme: "1 Samuel 31:2-13 2 The Philistines overtook Saul and his sons; and the Philistines killed Jonathan and Abinadab and Malchishua, the sons of Saul. 3 The."— Presentation transcript:
1 Samuel 31: The Philistines overtook Saul and his sons; and the Philistines killed Jonathan and Abinadab and Malchishua, the sons of Saul. 3 The battle pressed hard upon Saul; the archers found him, and he was badly wounded by them. 4 Then Saul said to his armor-bearer, "Draw your sword and thrust me through with it, so that these uncircumcised may not come and thrust me through, and make sport of me." But his armor-bearer was unwilling; for he was terrified. So Saul took his own sword and fell upon it. 5 When his armor-bearer saw that Saul was dead, he also fell upon his sword and died with him. 6 So Saul and his three sons and his armor-bearer and all his men died together on the same day. 7 When the men of Israel who were on the other side of the valley and those beyond the Jordan saw that the men of Israel had fled and that Saul and his sons were dead, they forsook their towns and fled; and the Philistines came and occupied them. 8 The next day, when the Philistines came to strip the dead, they found Saul and his three sons fallen on Mount Gilboa. 9 They cut off his head, stripped off his armor, and sent messengers throughout the land of the Philistines to carry the good news to the houses of their idols and to the people. 10 They put his armor in the temple of Astarte; and they fastened his body to the wall of Beth-shan. 11 But when the inhabitants of Jabesh-gilead heard what the Philistines had done to Saul, 12 all the valiant men set out, traveled all night long, and took the body of Saul and the bodies of his sons from the wall of Beth-shan. They came to Jabesh and burned them there. 13 Then they took their bones and buried them under the tamarisk tree in Jabesh, and fasted seven days.
Background When David and his men part company with the Philistines at Achish (1 Samuel 29), the Philistines head north to Jezreel, while David and his men turn south toward Ziklag. I imagine each reaches their destination about the same time. This means that Saul and the Israelite army are fighting Philistines just about the same time David and his men are in pursuit of the Amalekite raiders. We know this is at least approximately the case since we are told that David learns of Saul’s death on the third day after he and his men arrive back at Ziklag, victorious over the Amalekites (2 Samuel 1:1-2). God providentially removes David from this conflict by occupying his attention even farther to the south. David is thus not allowed to fight with or against the Philistines. It is God’s will that in this battle between Israel and the Philistines, the Philistines will win and Saul and his sons will die in the battle.
Bible Study What was the request that Saul made to the armor-bearer in verse 31:4? Why did he make this request? How did Saul die? What did the Philistines do with Saul’s body? (see verse 10) Why? Compare this story with what is reported to David in 2 Samuel 1:1-10. How did Saul die according to 2 Samuel 1? 2 Samuel 1 After the death of Saul, when David had returned from defeating the Amalekites, David remained two days in Ziklag. 2 On the third day, a man came from Saul's camp, with his clothes torn and dirt on his head. When he came to David, he fell to the ground and did obeisance. 3 David said to him, "Where have you come from?" He said to him, "I have escaped from the camp of Israel." 4 David said to him, "How did things go? Tell me!" He answered, "The army fled from the battle, but also many of the army fell and died; and Saul and his son Jonathan also died." 5 Then David asked the young man who was reporting to him, "How do you know that Saul and his son Jonathan died?" 6 The young man reporting to him said, "I happened to be on Mount Gilboa; and there was Saul leaning on his spear, while the chariots and the horsemen drew close to him. 7 When he looked behind him, he saw me, and called to me. I answered, 'Here sir.' 8 And he said to me, 'Who are you?' I answered him, 'I am an Amalekite.' 9 He said to me, 'Come, stand over me and kill me; for convulsions have seized me, and yet my life still lingers.' 10 So I stood over him, and killed him, for I knew that he could not live after he had fallen. I took the crown that was on his head and the armlet that was on his arm, and I have brought them here to my lord."
2 Samuel 1: Samuel 1: They mourned and wept, and fasted until evening for Saul and for his son Jonathan, and for the army of the LORD and for the house of Israel, because they had fallen by the sword. 13 David said to the young man who had reported to him, "Where do you come from?" He answered, "I am the son of a resident alien, an Amalekite." 14 David said to him, "Were you not afraid to lift your hand to destroy the LORD's anointed?" 15 Then David called one of the young men and said, "Come here and strike him down." So he struck him down and he died. 16 David said to him, "Your blood be on your head; for your own mouth has testified against you, saying, 'I have killed the LORD's anointed.'" 17 David intoned this lamentation over Saul and his son Jonathan. 18 (He ordered that The Song of the Bow be taught to the people of Judah; it is written in the Book of Jashar.) He said: 19 Your glory, O Israel, lies slain upon your high places! How the mighty have fallen! 20 Tell it not in Gath, proclaim it not in the streets of Ashkelon; or the daughters of the Philistines will rejoice, the daughters of the uncircumcised will exult. 21 You mountains of Gilboa, let there be no dew or rain upon you, nor bounteous fields! For there the shield of the mighty was defiled, the shield of Saul, anointed with oil no more. 22 From the blood of the slain, from the fat of the mighty, the bow of Jonathan did not turn back, nor the sword of Saul return empty. 23 Saul and Jonathan, beloved and lovely! In life and in death they were not divided; they were swifter than eagles, they were stronger than lions. 24 O daughters of Israel, weep over Saul, who clothed you with crimson, in luxury, who put ornaments of gold on your apparel. 25 How the mighty have fallen in the midst of the battle! Jonathan lies slain upon your high places. 26 I am distressed for you, my brother Jonathan; greatly beloved were you to me; your love to me was wonderful, passing the love of women. 27 How the mighty have fallen, and the weapons of war perished!
Bible Study continued… How did David respond to the main who reported to him of Saul’s death? Is the response the man expected? Why or why not? Why does David act so harshly to the man that claimed to have killed Saul? This passage includes David’s prayers of lament for Saul. How is lament expressed either privately or publicly in your congregation or community?
This Byzantine bathhouse contains hot and tepid bathing halls with a heating system. Its walls were coated with colored plaster and its floors were paved with marble slabs and mosaics.
“ Colonnade Street” Originally the street was a Roman road flanked on one side by a monumental colonnade. During the byzantine period, this Roman road was overlaid by a new street and a new hall was erected on top of the pool, its ceiling supported by the colonnade.
The earthquake of 749 CE leveled columns and structures along the street. A segment of the façade has been restored and reconstructed but the portico’s arches still lie in the heap of ruins.
Theater The arena was surrounded by a 3.2 m.-high wall, with rows of seats, for 5,000-7,000 spectators. Performances at the amphitheater probably included contests between gladiators, hunting of wild animals, sport competitions and more.
On the western and eastern sides of this wall were openings for direct access to the arena
Public Latrine Built next to bathhouse for the benefit of theater visitors and bathhouse users, the structure encloses a courtyard decorated with columns