2URBANIZATION: RAPID CITY GROWTH ATTRACTIONS OF CITY LIFE:1. JOBS - MANY DIFFERENT JOBS AVAILABLE ESPECIALLY IN FACTORIES2. PUBLIC SERVICES:a. Transportationb. Streetcarsc. Subwaysd. Bridgese. Skyscrapersf. Elevators(all of the above created jobs.)
31865-1900 - a. Enrollment doubled b. Teachers better trained 3. education:a. Public educationa. Enrollment doubledb. Teachers better trainedc. Vocational educationadded after 1900b. Librariesc. Museumsd. Concert hallse. Etc.CARNEGIE HALL
44. Cultural Attractions: a. Restaurantsb. Theatersc. Baseball parksd. Racetracksbeaches
5Problems of City Life:1. overcrowded – tenements – a substandard multi-family dwelling in the urban core, usually old and occupied by the poor.Tenements offered no ventilation which caused health problems and potential fire hazards. No indoor plumbing, etc.
62. Sanitation:a. Garbage placed on streetsb. Water was polluted from all the garbagec. Attracted rats and germsd. Many water born diseases presente. Air pollution from factories3. Crime:a. A great deal of violent crime in poorerneighborhoodsb. Police force did exist but could not keepup with the rising populationc. Many gangs related to ethnic groups oroccupationsd. Poverty encouraged crimee. Slums developed
74. Hospitals - existed but were only affordable to the wealthy.
8George E. Waring, Jr. Was an American Sanitary engineer and civic reformer.He designed and advocated a sewer system that kept domestic sewageSeparate from storm runoff.He also appointed to be the agricultural and drainage engineer for the construction of Central Park.
9Teddy RooseveltRaymond Kelly – current commissioner
10Impact of urbanization on families: sharp division among classes. 1. Working class – everyone worked, came home only to sleep, and were in low paying jobs.Blue collar workers.2. Middle class - shopkeepers, doctors, lawyers,and teachers – led comfortable lives. Made enough money to be able to afford to send their children to school.White collar workers.3. Wealthy – conspicuous consumption – display their wealth so all will notice.
11Ethnic neighborhoods: people tended to live in the same neighborhood as their nationality. Ex. Little Italy, and Chinatown.
12Immigration:1. “Old immigrants”a. Arrived prior to 1890b. Western frontier wide openc. Most from Northern and Western Europeancountries.2. “New Immgrants”a. Arrived after 1890b. Settled in urban centers: formed ethnicghetto neighborhoodsc. Western frontier closedd. Most from Southern and Eastern Europeane. Fled economic depravation and religiouspersecution
133. Examples of contributions: a. Building transportation systems -1. Chinese2. Italians3. Irish4. Slavsb. Mining –1. Welsh2. Poles3. Slavsc. Textiles -1. English2. Jewsd. Optical Equipment -1. Germans
14e. Chemical industry -1. Frenchf. Stone masons – sculptors1. Italians4. Reasons for Immigration:a. Population pressures - were attractedto the abundance of landb. Recruitment conditions - someindustries went abroad to attractworkers to come to the U.S. inreturn for free passagec. Economic conditions – job opportunitiesd. Persecution - religious - Jewish
15Nativist reaction to the “new immigrants” 1. Opposition:a. Economic reasons – competition for jobsb. Cultural reasons - dominant culture wantsto protect their culture against outside or“foreign influences”c. Psychological reasons – need to feelsuperior to others – often takes a racist ornationalist formxenophobia - fear of foreignersd. Political reasons – fear that immigrantsmight be connected with radical and revo-lutionary causes (Russian Revolution)