Presentation on theme: "Kennedy’s Foreign Policy p. 866-870. Kennedy’s “New Direction” Kennedy continued the anti-Communist policy that was used by Eisenhower & Truman. Increased."— Presentation transcript:
Kennedy’s “New Direction” Kennedy continued the anti-Communist policy that was used by Eisenhower & Truman. Increased spending on nuclear weapons - U.S. is still competing with the Soviet Union. Kennedy tries to convince Nikita Khrushchev, the Soviet leader, to agree to ban nuclear testing.
Guerrilla Warfare Used by Communist groups to take control of their nation’s government. Often funded by the Soviet Union. Definition: fighting by small bands using tactics such as sudden ambush. Kennedy introduced flexible response to fight guerrilla wars. U.S. top military unit was created… The Green Berets.
The Green Berets http://www.groups.sfahq.com/sf_heraldry/ballad_gb_heraldy.htm
“ In an April 11, 1962, White House memorandum for the United States Army, President Kennedy showed his continued support for the Special Forces, calling the green beret "a symbol of excellence, a badge of courage, a mark of distinction in the fight for freedom." To honor his memory, Special Forces soldiers pay their respects to late President Kennedy by laying a wreath and green beret on his tomb every November twenty-second, the date of his assassination.” http://www.specialoperations.com/Army/Special_Forces/SF_Info/Story.htm
Peace Corps Kennedy signed an executive order on March 1, 1961 creating the Peace Corps. Provides aid to countries that might find Communist economic promises appealing. By 1963, over 5,000 volunteers were working in more than 40 countries. http://www.peacecorps.gov/index.cfm?shell=learn.whatlike
They dig wells and build houses. Teach children and their parents how to read. They're America's Peace Corps Volunteers. 170,000 strong since 1961 when a young president challenged a new generation to become global citizens, to help make the world a better place. The responsibility for peace, he said, is the responsibility of our entire society. The Peace Corps: a president's idea, a generation's commitment. Democracy did it.
Bay of Pigs Invasion Fidel Castro, the new leader (and still leader 2007) of Cuba, became allies with USSR. U.S. recruited Cuban refugees, or exiles (people who had fled the new Cuban gov.) to overthrow Castro On April 17, 1961, about 1,500 CIA-trained trained refugees landed at the Bay of Pigs in southern Cuba. It did not go smoothly & Kennedy decided not to provide American air support. Cuban forces then stopped the invasion. Kennedy was blamed - an embarrassment!
The Berlin Wall 16 years after WWII, Germany was still divided. The Soviet Union remained in control of East Germany, and Berlin (in the middle of EG) was still divided among Soviet Union, Great Britain, France, & the U.S. In 1961, Premier Khrushchev told Kennedy that the West must move out of Berlin. The U.S. said “Uh…NO!” and sent troops to Berlin to protect the city. After more fled from EG to WG, East Germany & Soviets closed the border & built the Berlin Wall.
Cuban Missile Crisis In October 1962, an American spy plane flying over Cuba, discovered that the Soviets were building launching sites for nuclear missiles. (See map p. 869) Kennedy met secretly with advisers to make a plan for the Cuban Missile Crisis. Two Options: 1. Invade Cuba2. Bomb missile sites On October 22, Kennedy revealed the “Secret” to the American public. Kennedy ordered the navy to blockade Cuba until the Soviets removed the missiles. Read quote p. 869. Soviet ships continued to approach as the WORLD waited nervously. Five days later, the Soviets turned back and withdrew missiles.
Hot Line After an almost nuclear war (WWIII), the U.S. and Soviet Union created a direct telephone line, called the Hot Line. It allowed the leaders of both countries to communicate instantly in time of crisis.
Space Race Continued Sputnik beat us in space. Yuri Gagarin, a soviet cosmonaut, was first person in space Alan Shepard, Jr. became first American in space (a month after USSR) Kennedy asked Congress for money to fund NASA (National Aeronautics & Space Administration). John Glenn orbited the earth in 1962. The Apollo Project landed the Eagle spacecraft on the moon, and Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon - July 20, 1969. Soviets 2 United States 4 WE WIN!!