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Ruba Salih Gendering Migration & Diasporas Lecture 3.

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Presentation on theme: "Ruba Salih Gendering Migration & Diasporas Lecture 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ruba Salih Gendering Migration & Diasporas Lecture 3

2  Refugees  Asylum & Exile  Voluntary & Forced Migration  Migration/Asylum Nexus  Refugee Studies  Women in Forced Migration  Gender & Forced Migration  Readings  Proposed Questions

3  1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees: a refugee is “a person who flees to a foreign country or power to escape danger or persecution”Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees  1967 Protocol: “include persons who have fled war or other violence in their home country”  Environmental refugees (people displaced because of environmental problems such as drought) are not included in the definition of "refugee" under international law, neither are Environmental refugeesenvironmental droughtinternational law  Internally displaced people (IDP) Internally displaced people

4  Right of asylum (or political asylum ) is an ancient judicial notion, under which a person persecuted for political opinions or religious beliefs in his or her own country may be protected by another sovereign authority, a foreign country, or Church sanctuaries (as in medieval times).judicial persecutedsovereign authorityChurchsanctuaries  Asylum seeker  Increased vilification of asylum seekers: “illegal alien”, “undocumented” or “irregular” migrants

5  To be away from one’s home & being unable to return  Internal exile  External exile  Deportation  Government in Exile  “State of mind”  “Cultures of exile”, see, for example: 

6  Refugees (1951 Convention definition) 9.7 million (recognised by UNHCR)  Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) 25 m (13 m of them in Africa)  Development Induced Displacement 10 million a year (World Bank)  Environmental change and disasters Numbers unknown

7  Voluntary migration (choice, agency): labour, education, family unification  Forced Migration (no choice, no agency): persecution, war, conflict, violence, environmental disaster  Mixed migration : new forms blurring the boundaries?

8  1. Forced migrants distinctive experience & needs?  2. Focus on the great and increasing numbers of forced migrants  3. Distinction more based in our needs rather than reflecting complex empirical realities  Anthony Richmond (1994)  Nicholas van Hear (1998)

9  Growing difficulty in separating between forced and economic migration  Closely related causes of forced and economic migration  Increasing similarities in the migratory process for both categories  Common responses: lack of differentiation between asylum seekers and irregular migrants

10  Homogenization & Generalization  Refugee as male  Emphasis on legal & political dimension  Tension between research & practice  Macro-level analysis  Neglect of ‘experience’  Invisibility of women  “Gender” marginalized analytical categories  No intersectional analyses (class, gender, ethnicity, race, sexuality etc.)

11  Women in Forced Migration (WIFM)  Recognition of special experiences of women  Disadvantages in situations of forced migration  Topics include: women’s experiences of causes for forced migration (war, conflict, political repression, natural disasters); experiences of flight & refugee camps; livelihoods; entry into labour markets  women seeking asylum

12  Gender and Forced Migration (GAFM) 1. “Engendering Knowledge” in the study and practice of forced migration 2. Relations of power, privilege and prestige informed by situated notions of maleness and femaleness 3. Topics include motivations/reasons for migration, migration flows, gender-specific violence before, during and after flight, experiences within refugee camps, receiving countries, legal dimensions, impact on identities & sense of self; gender ideologies roles & relations

13  Developments in law  Impact of major international conferences  Women’s rights as human rights  CEDAW (1979)  UN Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women  Sexual abuse and rape recognized as war crime  UNHCR adoption of guidelines for the protection of women

14   For short videos, see 


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