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-40°C 70°C °C UN Working Group Meetings Kyoto, Japan 9 – 11 November 2009 T2 Ad Hoc Team Proposal UN Working Group Meetings 9 – 11 November 2009 Kyoto,

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Presentation on theme: "-40°C 70°C °C UN Working Group Meetings Kyoto, Japan 9 – 11 November 2009 T2 Ad Hoc Team Proposal UN Working Group Meetings 9 – 11 November 2009 Kyoto,"— Presentation transcript:

1 -40°C 70°C °C UN Working Group Meetings Kyoto, Japan 9 – 11 November 2009 T2 Ad Hoc Team Proposal UN Working Group Meetings 9 – 11 November 2009 Kyoto, Japan 1

2 -40°C 70°C °C UN Working Group Meetings Kyoto, Japan 9 – 11 November 2009 T2 Ad Hoc Team Team Leader – Marc Boolish (Energizer) Team Members – Angie Crane: Altairnano – Gary Drew: Sanyo – Ronald Elder: Chrysler – George Kerchner: PRBA – Mike Sink: Saft Drafted Team Member – Charlie Monahan: Panasonic 2

3 -40°C 70°C °C UN Working Group Meetings Kyoto, Japan 9 – 11 November 2009Proposals 1.Mass loss table categories 2.Temperature transition time 3.Maximum temperature 4.Number of test cycles (clarification) 5.No longer test time for large format battery types 3 Mass M of cell or battery Mass loss limit M < 1 g0.5% 1 g < M < 5 g0.2% M ≥ 5 g0.1%

4 -40°C 70°C °C UN Working Group Meetings Kyoto, Japan 9 – 11 November 2009 Mass Loss Table Categories Mass Loss Table Categories Proposal 1 Mass M of cell or battery Mass loss limit M < 1 g0.5% 1 g < M < 5 g0.2% M ≥ 5 g0.1% 4 There are many batteries that exceed 5 g Some types exceed 1 kg Per the Paris minutes, we were to review the categories and make proposal(s) – Focus on the middle category – Perform Lower Explosion Limit (LEL) calculations Existing Mass Loss Limits

5 -40°C 70°C °C UN Working Group Meetings Kyoto, Japan 9 – 11 November 2009 Lithium Battery Universe Natural Division 5 Proposal 1 Example: There are 5 different battery offerings from these 6 companies that weigh 18 grams

6 -40°C 70°C °C UN Working Group Meetings Kyoto, Japan 9 – 11 November 2009 Lower Explosion Limit Lower Explosion Limit Review Items Volumes of: – Unit load devices (ULD’s) – Cargo holds Battery weight in cargo Lower explosion limits of electrolytes Calculations using Ideal Gas Law 6 Proposal 1 LD-3 LD-8

7 -40°C 70°C °C UN Working Group Meetings Kyoto, Japan 9 – 11 November 2009 Weight Loss to Reach Lower Explosion Limit 7 Proposal 1 Battery TypeEnergizer L92 AAA LithiumHeight (mm)44.5 ChemistryLithium Iron DisulfideDiameter (mm)10.5 Battery Weight7.6gramsVolume (m 3 ) E-06 Battery Volume E-06cubic meters ElectrolyteDME/Dioxolane mixture Lower Explosive Limit (LEL)*1.90% Molecular Weight Electrolyte*78.97g/mol Electrolyte partial pressure at LEL atm Total Container Pressure at LEL atm Cargo AreaMain DeckForwardAftBulk Compartment Empty Volume (m 3 ) Void Volume (15% Volume) m Battery Volume (85% Volume) m Total batteries in shipment Total battery weight (kg) Maximum permitted weight (kg) Total batteries at max weight Volume batteries at max weight (m 3 ) New Void Volume (m 3 )** Use Ideal Gas Law PV=nRT Total Pressure (P) (atm) Total Volume (V) (m 3 ) R value (m 3 x atm/mol x K) Temperature (21C) in K294 Moles Electrolyte at LEL (n) Grams Electrolyte at LEL Grams per battery at LEL Percentage of battery weight

8 -40°C 70°C °C UN Working Group Meetings Kyoto, Japan 9 – 11 November 2009 Weight Loss to Reach Lower Explosion Limit 8 Proposal 1 Cargo AreaMain Deck Empty Volume (m 3 )259 Void Volume (15% Volume) m Battery Volume (85% Volume) m Total batteries in shipment57,162,396 Total battery weight (kg)434, Maximum permitted weight (kg)41,500 Total batteries at max weight5,460,526 Volume batteries at max weight (m 3 )21.03 New Void Volume (m 3 )** Use Ideal Gas Law PV=nRT Total Pressure (P) (atm) Total Volume (V) (m 3 ) R value (m 3 x atm/mol x K) Temperature (21C) in K294 Moles Electrolyte at LEL (n)10, Grams Electrolyte at LEL794, Grams per battery at LEL Percentage of battery weight g

9 -40°C 70°C °C UN Working Group Meetings Kyoto, Japan 9 – 11 November 2009 Weight Loss to Reach Lower Explosion Limit ChemistrySize Weight Loss (%) of Every Cell to Reach LEL Unit Load Devices747C Cargo Hold IATA AAF / US LD-26 IATA AKE / US LD-3Main DeckForwardAft Bulk Compartment LiMnO 2 Largest 355 g Smallest 0.6 g LiFeS 2 Largest 32 g Smallest 7.6 g LiSOCl 2 Largest 1 kg Non-flammable electrolyte Smallest 7 g LiSO 2 Largest 3 kg Smallest 8 g Lithium Ion Average 45.5 g Proposal 1 Every single cell in a maximum weight shipment would have to lose 1.91% weight to reach the LEL

10 -40°C 70°C °C UN Working Group Meetings Kyoto, Japan 9 – 11 November 2009 Mass Loss Table Categories Mass Loss Table Categories Preferred Proposal Mass M of cell or battery Mass loss limit M < 1 g0.5% 1 g < M < 5 g0.2% M ≥ 5 g0.1% Mass M of cell or battery Mass loss limit Any Size0.25% 10 Proposal 1

11 -40°C 70°C °C UN Working Group Meetings Kyoto, Japan 9 – 11 November 2009 Mass Loss Table Categories Concerns expressed on 0.25% for batteries less than 1 g. Largest cells have less issue with 0.1%. 11 Proposal 1

12 -40°C 70°C °C UN Working Group Meetings Kyoto, Japan 9 – 11 November 2009 Mass Loss Table Categories Mass M of cell or battery Mass loss limit M < 1 g0.5% M ≥ 1 g0.25% Mass M of cell or battery Mass loss limit M < 1 g0.5% 1 g ≤ M < 75 g0.2% M ≥ 75 g0.1% Alternate Consideration 1 Alternate Consideration 2 12 Proposal 1

13 -40°C 70°C °C UN Working Group Meetings Kyoto, Japan 9 – 11 November 2009 Temperature Transition Time Temperature Transition Time Proposal 2 Difficulty moving temperature chambers from hot to cold or reverse Heat / cold sinks – batteries in chambers Multiple chamber use Larger batteries and moving equipment Operator exposure protection Actual temperature transition in airplanes – Closer to 1 hour in simulations 30 minutes60 minutes 13

14 -40°C 70°C °C UN Working Group Meetings Kyoto, Japan 9 – 11 November 2009 Temperature Transition Time Experiment Nalgene HDPE Bottle – Cold temperature extreme of -100°C – Melting point of 130 – 137°C Bubble Wrap – Flash point above 260°C – Melting point = 93°C Thermocouple placed inside bottle and oven T2 test performed (no batteries) 14 Proposal 2

15 -40°C 70°C °C UN Working Group Meetings Kyoto, Japan 9 – 11 November 2009 Temperature Transition Time Experiment 15 Proposal 2

16 -40°C 70°C °C UN Working Group Meetings Kyoto, Japan 9 – 11 November 2009 Temperature Transition Time Experiment Temperature Transition Time Experiment Close-up of Each Cycle 16 Proposal 2 60 minutes is much more realistic

17 -40°C 70°C °C UN Working Group Meetings Kyoto, Japan 9 – 11 November 2009 Maximum Temperature Maximum Temperature Proposal 3 Avoids nuisance issues without significant change Activation of thermal safety devices Distortion of battery cases/components Electrolyte boiling Insulating label damage. 75 º C70 º C 17

18 -40°C 70°C °C UN Working Group Meetings Kyoto, Japan 9 – 11 November 2009 Cycle Clarification Cycle Clarification Proposal 4 Occasional confusion with test labs and regulators on 10 vs 11 cycles Clarifying 10 cycles – No change or effect on test – Makes requirement perfectly clear for all readers 18

19 -40°C 70°C °C UN Working Group Meetings Kyoto, Japan 9 – 11 November 2009 Extra Exposure Time for Large Cells Extra Exposure Time for Large Cells Proposal 5 Eliminate the requirement Transport is identical for all batteries regardless of size New UN Subcommittee definition (> 12 g) significantly narrows differences between large and small batteries. Longer test time – Two different shifts running each cycle – Dramatic additional cost 19

20 -40°C 70°C °C UN Working Group Meetings Kyoto, Japan 9 – 11 November 2009 T2 – If Proposals Accepted 20 Existing LanguageProposed Language Test 2: Thermal test Purpose This test assesses cell and battery seal integrity and internal electrical connections. The test is conducted using rapid and extreme temperature changes Test procedure Test cells and batteries are to be stored for at least six hours at a test temperature equal to 75 ± 2 °C, followed by storage for at least six hours at a test temperature equal to - 40 ± 2 °C. The maximum time interval between test temperature extremes is 30 minutes. This procedure is to be repeated 10 times, after which all test cells and batteries are to be stored for 24 hours at ambient temperature (20 ± 5 °C.). For large cells and batteries the duration of exposure to the test temperature extremes should be at least 12 hours Requirement Cells and batteries meet this requirement if there is no mass loss, no leakage, no venting, no disassembly, no rupture and no fire and if the open circuit voltage of each test cell or battery after testing is not less than 90% of its voltage immediately prior to this procedure. The requirement relating to voltage is not applicable to test cells and batteries at fully discharged states Test 2: Thermal test Purpose This test assesses cell and battery seal integrity and internal electrical connections. The test is conducted using rapid and extreme temperature changes Test procedure Test cells and batteries are to be stored for at least six hours at a test temperature equal to ± 2 °C, followed by storage for at least six hours at a test temperature equal to - 40 ± 2 °C. The maximum time interval between test temperature extremes is minutes. This procedure is to be repeated until 10 total cycles are complete times, after which all test cells and batteries are to be stored for 24 hours at ambient temperature (20 ± 5 °C.). For large cells and batteries the duration of exposure to the test temperature extremes should be at least 12 hours Requirement Cells and batteries meet this requirement if there is no mass loss, no leakage, no venting, no disassembly, no rupture and no fire and if the open circuit voltage of each test cell or battery after testing is not less than 90% of its voltage immediately prior to this procedure. The requirement relating to voltage is not applicable to test cells and batteries at fully discharged states.

21 -40°C 70°C °C UN Working Group Meetings Kyoto, Japan 9 – 11 November 2009 Thank You ありがとうございます。 21


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