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TRP Chapter 2.1 1 Chapter 2.1 Definition and classification.

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Presentation on theme: "TRP Chapter 2.1 1 Chapter 2.1 Definition and classification."— Presentation transcript:

1 TRP Chapter 2.1 1 Chapter 2.1 Definition and classification

2 TRP Chapter 2.1 2 General definition A hazardous waste has the potential to cause an unacceptable risk to: –PUBLIC HEALTH –THE ENVIRONMENT

3 TRP Chapter 2.1 3 Why definition is difficult HAZARDOUS WASTE PHYSICAL FORM PHYSICAL PROPERTIES CHEMICAL PROPERTIES COMPOSITION The hazard associated with a waste depends on: BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

4 TRP Chapter 2.1 4 Examples of hazardous waste definitions: Basel Convention 45 categories of wastes that are presumed to be hazardous. PLUS …... These categories of waste need to exhibit one or more hazardous characteristics: flammable, oxidising, poisonous, infectious, corrosive, ecotoxic

5 TRP Chapter 2.1 5 Examples of hazardous waste definitions: UNEP Wastes other than radioactive wastes which, by reason of their chemical activity or toxic, explosive, corrosive or other characteristics cause danger or are likely to cause danger to health or the environment

6 TRP Chapter 2.1 6 Examples of hazardous waste definitions: USA UNDER US EPA REGULATIONS: 1 The waste is listed in EPA regulations 2 The waste is tested and meets one of the four characteristics established by EPA: Ignitable Corrosive Reactive Toxic 3 The waste is declared hazardous by the generator

7 TRP Chapter 2.1 7 Examples of hazardous waste definitions: European Waste Catalogue A core list of 850 types of waste Of these, around 420 are classified as hazardous wastes These are divided into 19 main categories

8 TRP Chapter 2.1 8 The objective of definitions Why define wastes? To decide whether or not that waste should be controlled - this is important for the generator as well as the regulator Why create a list? Clear and simple No need for testing

9 TRP Chapter 2.1 9 Different methods of classification Lists eg Basel Convention Annex I, Basel List A, EU European Waste Catalogue, US EPA list Origin eg processes, Basel Convention Annex II Hazardous characteristics eg toxicity, reactivity, Basel Convention Annex III Chemical and physical properties eg inorganic, organic, oily, sludges Need to match classification to objectives No method will suit all cases

10 TRP Chapter 2.1 10 Methods of waste classification: by origin Waste streams eg Basel Convention Miscellaneous or ubiquitous wastes eg contaminated soils dusts redundant pesticides from agriculture hospital wastes

11 TRP Chapter 2.1 11 Example of waste classification by origin: Basel The Basel Convention’s List of Hazardous Waste Categories (Y1-Y18) identifies wastes from specific processes eg Y1 Clinical wastes Y6 Wastes from the production and use of organic solvents Y18 Residues from industrial waste disposal operations

12 TRP Chapter 2.1 12 Methods of waste classification: by hazardous characteristics Main characteristics: Toxic Corrosive UN Committee on the Transport of Dangerous Goods by Road or Rail (ADR) lists waste characteristics. These have been adopted by Basel Convention - Annex III gives 13 characteristics, based on ADR rules, including: Explosive Flammable Toxic and eco-toxic Represented as codes H1-H13 Ignitable Reactive

13 TRP Chapter 2.1 13 Hazardous characteristics: Toxicity Toxic wastes are harmful or fatal when ingested, inhaled or absorbed through the skin Examples: Spent cyanide solutions Waste pesticides

14 TRP Chapter 2.1 14 Hazardous characteristics: Corrosivity Acids or alkalis that are capable of dissolving human flesh and corroding metal such as storage tanks and drums Examples: acids from metals cleaning processes eg ferric chloride from printed circuit board manufacture liquor from steel manufacture

15 TRP Chapter 2.1 15 Hazardous characteristics: Ignitability Ignitable wastes: can create fires under certain conditions or are spontaneously combustible Examples: Waste oils Used solvents Organic cleaning materials Paint wastes

16 TRP Chapter 2.1 16 Hazardous characteristics: Reactivity Reactive wastes are unstable under ‘normal conditions’ They can cause: explosions toxic fumes gases or vapours Examples: Peroxide solutions Hypochlorite solutions or solids

17 TRP Chapter 2.1 17 Hazardous characteristics: Eco-toxicity Eco-toxic wastes are harmful or fatal to other species or to the ecological integrity of their habitats Examples: Heavy metals Detergents Oils Soluble salts

18 TRP Chapter 2.1 18 Methods of waste classification: by chemical, biological and physical properties Inorganic wastes eg acids, alkalis, heavy metals, cyanides, wastewaters from electroplating Organic wastes eg pesticides, halogenated and non-halogenated solvents, PCBs Oily wastes eg lubricating oils, hydraulic fluids, contaminted fuel oils Sludges eg from metal working, painting, wastewater treatment

19 TRP Chapter 2.1 19 Relative composition of hazardous waste types by region Source: INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANISATION Global waste survey, final report 1995

20 TRP Chapter 2.1 20 Hazardous waste from households - outside the controls in many countries Small quantity generators - often placed outside the system, at least initially Aqueous effluents discharged to sewer or treated on-site - controlled separately from hazardous wastes in most countries Sewage sludge - excluded in some countries Mining wastes - often excluded Agricultural waste - often excluded Nuclear waste - always excluded Exclusions from control systems Some wastes may be excluded from the legal definition of hazardous wastes, and thus not subject to controls. These vary, but may include:

21 TRP Chapter 2.1 21 Chapter 2.1 Summary This chapter sets out the need for definitions, and why definition is difficult It provides examples of definitions: Basel Convention, UNEP, USEPA, European Waste Catalogue It gives the objective of definitions It describes classification methods: by origin, by hazardous characteristics, by chemical, biological and physical properties It covers exclusions from definitions

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