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Presentation on theme: "Boundless Lecture Slides Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Available on the Boundless Teaching Platform."— Presentation transcript:

1 Boundless Lecture Slides Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Available on the Boundless Teaching Platform

2 Using Boundless Presentations The Appendix The appendix is for you to use to add depth and breadth to your lectures. You can simply drag and drop slides from the appendix into the main presentation to make for a richer lecture experience. Free to edit, share, and copy Feel free to edit, share, and make as many copies of the Boundless presentations as you like. We encourage you to take these presentations and make them your own. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless Teaching Platform Boundless empowers educators to engage their students with affordable, customizable textbooks and intuitive teaching tools. The free Boundless Teaching Platform gives educators the ability to customize textbooks in more than 20 subjects that align to hundreds of popular titles. Get started by using high quality Boundless books, or make switching to our platform easier by building from Boundless content pre-organized to match the assigned textbook. This platform gives educators the tools they need to assign readings and assessments, monitor student activity, and lead their classes with pre-made teaching resources. Get started now at: If you have any questions or problems please

3 Boundless is an innovative technology company making education more affordable and accessible for students everywhere. The company creates the world’s best open educational content in 20+ subjects that align to more than 1,000 popular college textbooks. Boundless integrates learning technology into all its premium books to help students study more efficiently at a fraction of the cost of traditional textbooks. The company also empowers educators to engage their students more effectively through customizable books and intuitive teaching tools as part of the Boundless Teaching Platform. More than 2 million learners access Boundless free and premium content each month across the company’s wide distribution platforms, including its website, iOS apps, Kindle books, and iBooks. To get started learning or teaching with Boundless, visit boundless.com.boundless.com Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at About Boundless

4 Properties of the Halogens Halogen Compounds Halogen Uses Halogens Nonmetallic Elements > Halogens Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at

5 Halogens are nonmetals in group 17 of the periodic table.Down the group, atom size increases.As a diatomic molecule, fluorine has the weakest bond due to repulsion between electrons of the small atoms. Due to increased strength of Van der Waals forces down the group, the boiling points of halogens increase.Therefore, the physical state of the elements down the group changes from gaseous fluorine to solid iodine. Due to their high effective nuclear charge, halogens are highly electronegative.Therefore, they are highly reactive and can gain an electron through reaction with other elements.Halogens can be harmful or lethal to biological organisms in sufficient quantities. Properties of the Halogens Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Physical States of Halogens View on Boundless.com Nonmetallic Elements > Halogens

6 Hydrogen halides are binary compounds of halogens with hydrogen.They are strong hydrohalic acids when dissolved in water, with the exception of HF.All of these acids are dangerous; some are widely used in chemical manufacturing plants. Metal halides are compounds of halogens and metals.They include highly ionic compounds, monomeric covalent compounds, and polymeric covalent compounds.Metal halides can be obtained through direct combination or through neutralization of a basic metal salt with a hydrohalic acid. Interhalogen compounds are formed when halogens react with each other.Some resemble the pure halogens in some respects, but mostly their properties and behaviors are intermediates of those of the two parent halogens.Some properties, however, are found in neither parent halogen. Halogenated compounds, or organic halides, are organic compounds that contain halogen atoms.In the human body, some halogens perform multiple regulatory functions, while others are not essential.Organohalogens are synthesized through the nucleophilic abstraction reaction. Compounds substituted with multiple halogens are known as polyhalogenated compounds.Many of them are very toxic and bioaccumulate in humans, but they have many potential applications. Halogen Compounds Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Silver Chloride View on Boundless.com Nonmetallic Elements > Halogens

7 Fluoride can be found in many everyday products, including toothpaste, vitamin supplements, baby formulas, and even public water.However, overconsumption of fluoride can be fatal. Chlorine accounts for about 0.15 percent of human body weight and plays several important roles in the body's functioning.Compounds of both chlorine and bromine are used as disinfectants for sterilization. Iodine is essential for the functioning of the body's thyroid gland.Without iodine, thyroid hormones cannot be produced, which leads to hypothyroidism. Drug candidates that have incorporated halogen atoms are usually more lipophilic and less water-soluble than their analogues, and so have improved penetration through lipid membranes and tissues.Because of this, some halogenated drugs can accumulate in adipose tissue. Polyhalogenated compounds (PHCs) are highly reactive and also bioaccumulate in humans; some of them have toxic and carcinogenic properties.PHCs are used in a vast array of manufactured products and in pest control. Halogen Uses Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at The Chemical Structure of DDT View on Boundless.com Nonmetallic Elements > Halogens

8 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Appendix

9 Key terms disinfectant A substance that kills germs and/or viruses. electronegativity The tendency of an atom to attract electrons to itself. halide A compound of a halogen and one or more elements. halogens Group 17 (or VII) in the periodic table consisting of fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).They share similar chemical properties. hypothyroidism The disease state caused by insufficient production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland. interhalogen A binary compound of two different halogens. polyhalogenated compound A compound with multiple atoms of halogens. polyhalogenated compounds Compounds with multiple halogen atoms. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Nonmetallic Elements

10 Silver Chloride Silver chloride is the precipitate formed when silver nitrate solution is added to chloride solution. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Wikipedia. "AgCl-neerslag." CC BY-SA View on Boundless.comCC BY-SAhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:AgCl-neerslag.jpgView on Boundless.com Nonmetallic Elements

11 Physical States of Halogens Halogens represents all of the three familiar states of matter: (left to right) chlorine is a gas, bromine is a liquid, and iodine is a solid.Highly reactive fluorine is not included in the picture. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Wikipedia. "Halogens." CC BY-SA View on Boundless.comCC BY-SAhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Halogens.jpgView on Boundless.com Nonmetallic Elements

12 The Chemical Structure of DDT DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) is an organochlorine used as an insecticide.It is now banned in the United States because of its potential harmful effects on human health.Key: chlorine atoms: green, carbon atoms: black, hydrogen atoms: white. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Wikipedia. "DDT-from-xtal-3D-balls." CC BY-SA View on Boundless.comCC BY-SAhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DDT-from-xtal-3D-balls.pngView on Boundless.com Nonmetallic Elements

13 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Nonmetallic Elements As you go down the halogen group: A) atoms get smaller and the boiling point increases. B) atoms get bigger and the boiling point decreases. C) atoms get bigger and the boiling point increases. D) atoms get smaller and the boiling point decreases.

14 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Nonmetallic Elements As you go down the halogen group: A) atoms get smaller and the boiling point increases. B) atoms get bigger and the boiling point decreases. C) atoms get bigger and the boiling point increases. D) atoms get smaller and the boiling point decreases.

15 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Nonmetallic Elements The five halogens are: A) fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine and astatine. B) oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium and polonium. C) boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and fluorine. D) nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine and bromine.

16 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Nonmetallic Elements The five halogens are: A) fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine and astatine. B) oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium and polonium. C) boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and fluorine. D) nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine and bromine.

17 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Nonmetallic Elements Why are halogens harmful to biological organisms in sufficient quantities? A) They are very reactive due to their low electronegativity. B) They are very reactive due to their high electropositivity. C) They are very reactive due to their high electronegativity. D) They are very reactive due to their low electropositivity.

18 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Nonmetallic Elements Why are halogens harmful to biological organisms in sufficient quantities? A) They are very reactive due to their low electronegativity. B) They are very reactive due to their high electropositivity. C) They are very reactive due to their high electronegativity. D) They are very reactive due to their low electropositivity.

19 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Nonmetallic Elements All of the following are strong chemical acids when dissolved in water, EXCEPT: A) hydrogen chloride B) hydrogen fluoride C) hydrogen bromide D) hydrogen iodide

20 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Nonmetallic Elements All of the following are strong chemical acids when dissolved in water, EXCEPT: A) hydrogen chloride B) hydrogen fluoride C) hydrogen bromide D) hydrogen iodide

21 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Nonmetallic Elements Which of the following best describes metal halides? A) They are commonly obtained though acidification of a basic metal salt with a hydrohalic acid. B) They are commonly obtained though neutralization of a basic metal acid with a hydrohalic acid. C) They are commonly obtained though neutralization of a basic metal salt with a hydrohalic acid. D) They are commonly obtained though neutralization of a basic metal acid with a hydrohalic salt.

22 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Nonmetallic Elements Which of the following best describes metal halides? A) They are commonly obtained though acidification of a basic metal salt with a hydrohalic acid. B) They are commonly obtained though neutralization of a basic metal acid with a hydrohalic acid. C) They are commonly obtained though neutralization of a basic metal salt with a hydrohalic acid. D) They are commonly obtained though neutralization of a basic metal acid with a hydrohalic salt.

23 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Nonmetallic Elements How would you describe the behavior of I-Cl? A) Mostly like I2 B) Mostly like Cl2 C) Exactly 50:50 of I2 and Cl2 D) A mix of Cl2 and I2 with some unique properties.

24 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Nonmetallic Elements How would you describe the behavior of I-Cl? A) Mostly like I2 B) Mostly like Cl2 C) Exactly 50:50 of I2 and Cl2 D) A mix of Cl2 and I2 with some unique properties.

25 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Nonmetallic Elements Match each of the halogens with their appropriate application: A) F - thyroid hormone production; Cl - stomach acidification; Br - disinfectant; I - baby formula. B) F - baby formula; Cl - stomach acidification; Br - thyroid hormone production; I - disinfectant. C) F - baby formula; Cl - disinfectant; Br - thyroid hormone production; I - stomach acidification. D) F - baby formula; Cl - stomach acidification; Br - disinfectant; I - thyroid hormone production.

26 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Nonmetallic Elements Match each of the halogens with their appropriate application: A) F - thyroid hormone production; Cl - stomach acidification; Br - disinfectant; I - baby formula. B) F - baby formula; Cl - stomach acidification; Br - thyroid hormone production; I - disinfectant. C) F - baby formula; Cl - disinfectant; Br - thyroid hormone production; I - stomach acidification. D) F - baby formula; Cl - stomach acidification; Br - disinfectant; I - thyroid hormone production.

27 Attribution Wikipedia. "polyhalogenated compound." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/polyhalogenated%20compound Wikipedia. "Halogens." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halogens Wiktionary. "interhalogen." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/interhalogen Wiktionary. "halide." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/halide Wikibooks. "A-level Chemistry/AQA/Module 2/Group VII: The Halogens." CC BY-SA 3.0 level_Chemistry/AQA/Module_2/Group_VII:_The_Halogens#Physical_PropertiesCC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/A- level_Chemistry/AQA/Module_2/Group_VII:_The_Halogens#Physical_Properties Wikipedia. "Halogens." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halogens Wikipedia. "Halogen." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halogen Wiktionary. "electronegativity." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/electronegativity Wiktionary. "halogen." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/halogen Wikipedia. "Halogens." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halogens Wikipedia. "Polyhalogenated compound." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polyhalogenated_compound Wikipedia. "Halogens." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halogens Wikibooks. "Structural Biochemistry/Inorganic Chemistry/Nonmetals/Halogens." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0 Wiktionary. "disinfectant." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/disinfectant Wikipedia. "polyhalogenated compounds." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/polyhalogenated%20compounds Wiktionary. "hypothyroidism." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/hypothyroidism Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Nonmetallic Elements


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