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EUM/ Issue Jochen Grandell Convection Working Group Meeting 27 – 30 March 2012, Prague Geostationary lightning monitoring with the Meteosat Third Generation.

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Presentation on theme: "EUM/ Issue Jochen Grandell Convection Working Group Meeting 27 – 30 March 2012, Prague Geostationary lightning monitoring with the Meteosat Third Generation."— Presentation transcript:

1 EUM/ Issue Jochen Grandell Convection Working Group Meeting 27 – 30 March 2012, Prague Geostationary lightning monitoring with the Meteosat Third Generation Lightning Imager (MTG LI) Slide: 1 EUM/MTG/VWG/12/0278 March 2012 Prague, Czech Republic

2 EUM/ Issue Topics of Presentation Lightning Detection from Space – from LEO to GEO observations EUMETSAT Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) – Lightning Imager Concept Product processing Challenges User Readiness Summary EUM/MTG/VWG/12/0278 March 2012 Prague, Czech Republic

3 EUM/ Issue Topics of Presentation Lightning Detection from Space – from LEO to GEO observations EUMETSAT Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) – Lightning Imager Concept Product processing Challenges User Readiness Summary EUM/MTG/VWG/12/0278 March 2012 Prague, Czech Republic

4 EUM/ Issue Lightning Detection from Space – from LEO to GEO OTD ( ) LIS (1997-present) Feasibility of lightning detection from space by optical sensors has been proven by NASA instruments since 1995 on low earth orbits (LEO) Results from LIS/OTD: Global lightning distribution Annual flash density

5 EUM/ Issue Lightning Detection from Space – from LEO to GEO Geostationary Lightning Imager (GLI) on FY-4 (China) Lightning Imager (LI) on MTG (Europe) GEO lightning missions in preparation by several agencies (in USA, Europe, China) for this decade......all of these are building on LIS/OTD heritage Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) on GOES-R (USA) 2015  2018  2014 ? EUM/MTG/VWG/12/0278 March 2012 Prague, Czech Republic

6 EUM/ Issue The LI on MTG measures Total Lightning: Cloud-to-Cloud Lightning (IC) and Cloud-to-Ground Lightning (CG) The MTG Lightning Imager (LI) Main objectives are to detect, monitor, and extrapolate in time: Development (Intensity/Movement) of active convective areas Monitoring of storm lifecycle Lightning climatology & Chemistry (NOx production) Main benefit from GEO observations: homogeneous and continuous observations delivering information on location and strength of lightning flashes to the users with a timeliness of 30 seconds LIS/OTD flash density in the MTG LI field of view GEO observation of lightning is complementary to ground-based networks, some of which are for local applications very good

7 EUM/ Issue...Air Traffic is one area of application, and not just around major airports... Slide: 7

8 EUM/ Issue Topics of Presentation Lightning Detection from Space – from LEO to GEO observations EUMETSAT Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) – Lightning Imager Concept Product processing Challenges User Readiness Summary EUM/MTG/VWG/12/0278 March 2012 Prague, Czech Republic

9 EUM/ Issue Slide: 9 Detection of a Lightning Optical Signal Lightning with a background signal changing with time: Lightning on top of a bright background is not recognised by its bright radiance, but by its transient short pulse character For detection of lightning, a variable adapting threshold has to be used for each pixel which takes into account the change in the background radiance (in LIS: background calculated as a moving average) Lightning signal Background Time Radiation energy Night Day EUM/MTG/VWG/12/0278 March 2012 Prague, Czech Republic

10 EUM/ Issue From a Lightning Optical Signal to MTG LI Events Detection of events in a nutshell: Output (=events) of the Lightning Imager at L0 is two-fold: Background scene tracking and removal Thresholding Event detection Event detection False event filtering needed in L0-L1 processing True lightning events (triggered by a lightning optical signal) False events (not related to lightning) From a Lightning Optical Signal to MTG LI Events EUM/MTG/VWG/12/0278 March 2012 Prague, Czech Republic

11 EUM/ Issue Spatial Pattern of Lightning from Space Characteristics: – Size scales with cloud thickness above source – Mean area of lightning pulses corresponds well to a 10 km x 10 km footprint Possible schema of detected lightning pulses 1.Background scene tracking and removal 2.Thresholding 3.Event detection “MTG LI Events” etc... EUM/MTG/VWG/12/0278 March 2012 Prague, Czech Republic Optical pattern of lightning on cloud surface (observed from space shuttle)

12 EUM/ Issue Topics of Presentation Lightning Detection from Space – from LEO to GEO observations EUMETSAT Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) – Lightning Imager Concept Product processing Challenges User Readiness Summary EUM/MTG/VWG/12/0278 March 2012 Prague, Czech Republic

13 EUM/ Issue MTG LI Product Processing – L1b and L2 products The following products are resulting from the L1b processing: –Events with geolocation, UTC time stamp and calibrated radiance –background images, mainly supporting navigation The baseline L2 product, which is a result of clustering of events in time and space, consists of: –Groups (representing lightning strokes) –Flashes (1 st priority for many users) Example L2 Sequence: “Events” “Flashes” “Groups” Product processing in a nutshell EUM/MTG/VWG/12/0278 March 2012 Prague, Czech Republic

14 EUM/ Issue From events/groups/flashes towards DENSITY (1) For a quick-look, a forecaster or other operational user might prefer a density product. Can be based on: Events groups flashes...and with a variety of temporal windows Slide: 14 Events density simulation based on converted LINET data from 2 July 2009 (15 minutes density) EUM/MTG/VWG/12/0278 March 2012 Prague, Czech Republic

15 EUM/ Issue From events/groups/flashes towards DENSITY (2) Slide: 15 Animation of EVENT DENSITY simulation - Based on converted LINET data from 2 July 2009 (15 minutes density)

16 EUM/ Issue Topics of Presentation Lightning Detection from Space – from LEO to GEO observations EUMETSAT Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) – Lightning Imager Concept Product processing Challenges User Readiness Summary EUM/MTG/VWG/12/0278 March 2012 Prague, Czech Republic

17 EUM/ Issue Challenge for processing: “False Events” False events are typically caused by: High energy particle collisions Noise (instrument, spacecraft etc) Solar glint Spacecraft motion (“jitter”) Specific filters are required for each case:  Radiation filter  Shot noise/coherency filter  Solar glint filter  Contrast filter Rough order of severity (based on GLM analysis): Spacecraft motion, Photon/electronics noise, Solar glint, Radiation EUM/MTG/VWG/12/0278 March 2012 Prague, Czech Republic

18 EUM/ Issue Topics of Presentation Lightning Detection from Space – from LEO to GEO observations EUMETSAT Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) – Lightning Imager Concept Product processing Challenges User Readiness Summary EUM/MTG/VWG/12/0278 March 2012 Prague, Czech Republic

19 EUM/ Issue User Readiness (1) User readiness, as discussed here is to be understood as activities similar to what NOAA is attempting with the "GOES-R Proving Ground" framework of activities. Within this framework, an approach of creating "pseudo-GLM" data based on averaging and resampling ground-based Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) lightning density data has been developed: This “pseudo-GLM” data has been provided to forecasters in real-time along with other data to support their daily work. Slide: 19 EUM/MTG/VWG/12/0278 March 2012 Prague, Czech Republic

20 EUM/ Issue User Readiness (2) The idea is to make the forecaster end-user aware, and used to, the kind of product that would be available from the GLM. This is not perfect proxy data: It merely gives an "impression" of how the real GLM product could look like. EUMETSAT is planning a similar activity by using the existing proxy data methodology with the ground-based LINET data in Europe A near-real time application of the proxy data will be needed Data to be disseminated to selected Meteorological Services for evaluation and feedback Slide: 20 EUM/MTG/VWG/12/0278 March 2012 Prague, Czech Republic

21 EUM/ Issue Topics of Presentation Lightning Detection from Space – from LEO to GEO observations EUMETSAT Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) – Lightning Imager Concept Product processing Challenges User Readiness Summary EUM/MTG/VWG/12/0278 March 2012 Prague, Czech Republic

22 EUM/ Issue Summary One of the new instruments on the Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) is the Lightning Imager (LI), geostationary services from 2017 onwards continuous lightning observation (CG+CC) over almost the full disk (at 0 deg). Algorithm and processor development for baseline L2 products (event/group/flash –tree) currently ongoing Supported by a MTG Lightning Imager Science Team (LIST) set up in 2009 Interacting with potential users (such as CWG) an important topic in coming years EUM/MTG/VWG/12/0278 March 2012 Prague, Czech Republic

23 EUM/ Issue The MTG LI Science Team currently consists of the following members: –N.N. (MetOffice – UK) –Daniele Biron (USAM – Italy) –Eric Defer (LERMA – France) –Ullrich Finke (U. Hannover – Germany) –Hartmut H ö ller (DLR – Germany) –Philippe Lopez (ECMWF) –Douglas Mach (NASA – USA) –Antti M ä kel ä (FMI – Finland) –Serge Soula (Laboratoire d'Aerologie – France) MTG Lightning Imager Science Team (LIST) EUM/MTG/VWG/12/0278 March 2012 Prague, Czech Republic

24 EUM/ Issue EUM/MTG/VWG/12/0278 March 2012 Prague, Czech Republic

25 EUM/ Issue How noise looks like on a 0.5s period Slide: 25 FER = /s FER = /s FER = /s FER = /s FER = /s FER = /s FER = /s FER = /s FER = /s All noise events in 500 milliseconds!

26 EUM/ Issue 0 UTC 12 UTC 22 UTC Background radiance: Solar reflection on clouds and ground surfaces Background radiation from clouds determines the signal to noise ratio for detection of transient lightning signals Challenges: Day-night contrast in FOV Microvibrations (fast changing background) Sun glint

27 EUM/ Issue 0 UTC 12 UTC 22 UTC Background radiance: Solar reflection on clouds and ground surfaces Background radiation from clouds determines the signal to noise ratio for detection of transient lightning signals Challenges: Day-night contrast in FOV Microvibrations (fast changing background) Sun glint

28 EUM/ Issue 0 UTC 12 UTC 22 UTC Background radiance: Solar reflection on clouds and ground surfaces Background radiation from clouds determines the signal to noise ratio for detection of transient lightning signals Challenges: Day-night contrast in FOV Microvibrations (fast changing background) Sun glint

29 EUM/ Issue 0 UTC 12 UTC 22 UTC Background radiance: Solar reflection on clouds and ground surfaces Background radiation from clouds determines the signal to noise ratio for detection of transient lightning signals Challenges: Day-night contrast in FOV Microvibrations (fast changing background) Sun glint

30 EUM/ Issue 0 UTC 12 UTC 22 UTC Background radiance: Solar reflection on clouds and ground surfaces Background radiation from clouds determines the signal to noise ratio for detection of transient lightning signals Challenges: Day-night contrast in FOV Microvibrations (fast changing background) Sun glint

31 EUM/ Issue 0 UTC 12 UTC 22 UTC Background radiance: Solar reflection on clouds and ground surfaces Background radiation from clouds determines the signal to noise ratio for detection of transient lightning signals Challenges: Day-night contrast in FOV Microvibrations (fast changing background) Sun glint

32 EUM/ Issue Effect of Microvibrations (“jitter”) on Lightning Detection Slide: 32 Assuming that this is what the Lightning Imager is looking at... Cloud Darker (ocean) background Background energy Distance Darker (ocean) background Cloud

33 EUM/ Issue Effect of Microvibrations (“jitter”) on Lightning Detection Slide: 33 What if the instrument (satellite) moves slightly between integration frames...? Cloud Darker (ocean) background Background energy Distance Frame #1 Frame #2 Background removal (Frame #2 – Frame #1) Distance But this is not lightning!

34 EUM/ Issue MSG MOP/MTP Observation mission: - MVIRI: 3 channels Spinning satellite Class 800 kg Observation missions: - SEVIRI: 12 channels - GERB Spinning satellite Class 2-ton and Atmospheric Chemistry Mission (UVN-S4): via GMES Sentinel 4 Implementation of the EUMETSAT Mandate for the Geostationary Programme Meteosat Third Generation (MTG): Continuity and Evolution of EUMETSAT Services MOP/MTP MSG MTG-I and MTG-S Observation missions: - Flex.Comb. Imager: 16 channels - Infra-Red Sounder - Lightning Imager - UVN 3-axis stabilised satellites Twin Sat configuration Class 2,5 - 3 ton

35 EUM/ Issue MTG in Orbit Deployment Scenario MSG-4 MTG-I1 Dec MTG-I2 Dec MTG-I3 Jan MTG-I4 Dec MTG-S1 June 2018 MTG-S2 June – 2038: 20 years of Operational Service – Imaging Missions 2019 – 2035: 15.5 years of Operational Service – Sounding Mission

36 EUM/ Issue Slide: 36 MTG Lightning Imager Science Team (LIST) EUMETSAT has identified the need to establish a scientific baseline for the operational processor of the MTG mission. In support of these scientific developments, a science team has been established – MTG LI Science Team (LIST). The main objectives of the team is to: Assist EUMETSAT with the implementation of the MTG LI L2 scientific baseline processor. Prepare an Algorithm Theoretical Baseline Document (ATBD). It includes also a description of the proxy dataset, to be used for algorithm development and processor development. The ATBD will be subject for review at the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) concluding the MTG system Phase B activities

37 EUM/ Issue EUMETSAT, MTG LI and LINET EUMETSAT has now several years of experience in cooperating with Nowcast and DLR in using LINET data: Especially in developing proxy data......Latest activity has been in contributing to the CHUVA campaign in Brazil with the mobile LINET unit (DLR), which should after evaluation of the joint measurements with LMA and LIS allow a further enhancement of the proxy data Based on these experiences, it looks like LINET data could play an important role in “user readiness” activities as well as validation/monitoring of the operational product(s) from the MTG LI Slide: 37

38 EUM/ Issue MTG LI – Main Mission Requirements Wavelength  nm Sensitivity  pulses as small as 100 km 2 with energies down to 4 µJ/(m 2 sr) should be detected Spatial sampling  Less or equal to 10 km at 45 o N for the sub-satellite longitude Detection Efficiency  70% in average, 90% over central Europe, 40% as a minimum over EUMETSAT member states False Alarm Rate  2.5 false flashes/s Background images  every 60 seconds


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