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A Microwave Retrieval Algorithm of Above-Cloud Electric Fields Michael J. Peterson The University of Utah Chuntao Liu Texas A & M University – Corpus Christi Douglas Mach Global Hydrology and Climate Center Wiebke Deierling Wiebke Deierling Christina Kalb Christina Kalb National Center for Atmospheric Research

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The Global Electric Circuit (GEC) Ionosphere Fair Weather Currents Wilson Currents 250 kV 0 V Ground

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How is the GEC Studied? Direct E field observations Direct E field observations Limited domain and sample size Limited domain and sample size Continuous global observations Thunderstorms only

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Goal To create an algorithm that can estimate above-cloud electric fields that uses commonly-available global satellite products To create an algorithm that can estimate above-cloud electric fields that uses commonly-available global satellite products o Passive microwave -SSMI -TMI -GMI o Radar -TRMM PR -GPM DPR

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Objectives To provide a unique tool for examining: To provide a unique tool for examining: o Individual cases and global electricity o Long-term variations in global electricity o Relative contributions of different cloud types to the GEC To provide validation for the FESD:ECCWES effort To provide validation for the FESD:ECCWES effort

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Theoretical Basis Ice Particle Collisions Hydrometeor Charging Charge Separation Wilson Currents GEC

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Theoretical Basis Ice Particle Collisions Hydrometeor Charging Charge Separation Wilson Currents Collision Frequency Ice Concentration... GEC

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Theoretical Basis Ice Particle Collisions Hydrometeor Charging Charge Separation Wilson Currents GEC Collision Frequency Ice Concentration 37 GHz and 85 GHz Passive Microwave Observations...

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High Altitude Aircraft Version NASA ER-2 NASA ER-2 o Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) o Lightning Instrument Package (LIP) -3D electric field vector 4 field campaigns: CAMEX-3, CAMEX-4, TCSP, TRMM- LBA 4 field campaigns: CAMEX-3, CAMEX-4, TCSP, TRMM- LBA AMPR and LIP observations are used to construct the algorithm and assess its validity AMPR and LIP observations are used to construct the algorithm and assess its validity

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How the Algorithm Works 10 km 5 km 0 km 20 km 200 K qiqi Coulomb’s law:

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How the Algorithm Works 10 km 5 km 0 km 20 km 260 K200 K150 K200 K250 K 270 K 290 K 280 K250 K 270 K 300 K

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How the Algorithm Works 10 km 5 km 0 km 20 km q net i 260 K200 K150 K200 K250 K 270 K 290 K 280 K250 K 270 K 300 K

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How the Algorithm Works 10 km 5 km 0 km q net i hihi 260 K200 K150 K200 K250 K 270 K 290 K 280 K250 K 270 K |q net i | = f (T b i ) 20 km h i = f (T b i )

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How the Algorithm Works 10 km 5 km 0 km riri 260 K200 K150 K200 K250 K 270 K 290 K 280 K250 K 270 K 20 km |q net i | = f (T b i ) h i = f (T b i ) hihi q net i Coulomb’s law:

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How the Algorithm Works 10 km 5 km 0 km riri 260 K200 K150 K200 K250 K 270 K 290 K 280 K250 K 270 K 20 km |q net i | = f (T b i ) h i = f (T b i ) hihi q net i Coulomb’s law:

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How the Algorithm Works 10 km 5 km 0 km riri 260 K200 K150 K200 K250 K 270 K 290 K 280 K250 K 270 K 20 km |q net i | = f (T b i ) h i = f (T b i ) hihi q net i Coulomb’s law:

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Algorithm Performance Over Land

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Algorithm Performance over Land Missed Events False Alarms Missed Events False Alarms

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Example Case

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Missed Event Case

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False Alarm Case

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Overall Performance over Land |Error|< 100% Missed EventsFalse Alarms 37 GHz Shower clouds > 100 V/m 40.3 %53.2 %6.4 % Storm clouds > 100 V/m 41.7 %47.1 %11.2 % 85 GHZ Shower clouds > 100 V/m 68.2 %17.5 %14.4 % Storm clouds > 100 V/m 69.5 %7.4 %23.2 %

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Satellite Version Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) o TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) o Precipitation Radar (PR) o Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) Designed to take advantage of unique sensor package Designed to take advantage of unique sensor package o Radar-based estimate of charge height o Radar-based stratiform/convective partitioning

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Satellite Version 10 km 5 km 0 km hihi 260 K200 K150 K200 K250 K 280 K250 K 270 K |q net i | = f (T b i ) 20 km h i = max ht of 30 dBZ q net i

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1998 Distribution of LIS Lightning Flashes 1998 Distribution of Total Proxy E (stratiform scaling: 10%) Comparison with LIS Lightning

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1998 Diurnal LIS Lightning Distribution 1998 Diurnal Proxy E Distribution over Land (stratiform scaling: 10%)

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Comparison with LIS Lightning 1998 Diurnal LIS Lightning Distribution 1998 Diurnal Proxy E Distribution over Land (stratiform scaling: 10%)

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Comparison with LIS Lightning 1998 Diurnal LIS Lightning Distribution 1998 Diurnal Proxy E Distribution over Land (stratiform scaling: 10%)

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Conclusions The high altitude aircraft version can produce reasonable estimates of electric fields above convective clouds and clouds with significant electric fields The high altitude aircraft version can produce reasonable estimates of electric fields above convective clouds and clouds with significant electric fields The algorithm in its present form cannot adequately characterize electric fields above stratiform clouds and convection near large stratiform regions The algorithm in its present form cannot adequately characterize electric fields above stratiform clouds and convection near large stratiform regions o Particularly a problem for oceanic regions and mature MCS’s over land Passive microwave estimates of global electricity over land lead to similar spatial and temporal distributions compared to LIS lightning frequency Passive microwave estimates of global electricity over land lead to similar spatial and temporal distributions compared to LIS lightning frequency

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Next Steps Apply new dynamic stratiform scaling factor to prevent stratiform bias in convective pixel calculations (6,000 TRMM orbits processed) Apply new dynamic stratiform scaling factor to prevent stratiform bias in convective pixel calculations (6,000 TRMM orbits processed) Incorporate ground-based radar observations into the high-altitude aircraft dataset Incorporate ground-based radar observations into the high-altitude aircraft dataset Explore the feasibility of using a microwave-based convective/stratiform partitioning scheme Explore the feasibility of using a microwave-based convective/stratiform partitioning scheme Determine whether a combined 85 GHz/37 GHz charge proxy would have more skill than considering each frequency independently Determine whether a combined 85 GHz/37 GHz charge proxy would have more skill than considering each frequency independently Apply algorithm to entire 16-year TRMM dataset Apply algorithm to entire 16-year TRMM dataset

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Proxy E E Transfer Functions

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Stratiform Scaling 1998 Distribution of Total Proxy E (stratiform scaling: 100%) 1998 Distribution of Total Proxy E (stratiform scaling: 0%)

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