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1 Mobile Software Development Framework: TinyOS, J2ME 10/2/2012 Y. Richard Yang.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Mobile Software Development Framework: TinyOS, J2ME 10/2/2012 Y. Richard Yang."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Mobile Software Development Framework: TinyOS, J2ME 10/2/2012 Y. Richard Yang

2 2 Admin. r Homework 2 posted r Start to think about project

3 3 Recap: OFDM r Basic idea: use multiple subcarriers to reduce symbol rate per carrier r Problem: inter-carrier-interference (ICI) m Idea: orthogonal subcarriers to avoid ICI: chose each subcarrier frequency so that an integral number of cycles in a symbol period r Problem: implementation complexity m Idea: iFFT as an efficient algorithm for modulation on multiple subcarriers r Problem: ISI m Idea: cyclic prefix (guard interval)

4 4 Recap: Summary of Wireless PHY

5 5 Recap: GNURadio r A software development toolkit that provides signal processing blocks to implement software-defined radio systems. r Some key ideas m Hybrid software system (Python/C++) m Composite pattern to build a hierarchy of blocks m Internal scheduler to orchestrate data flows among blocks m Define gr_block as a reusable base so that defining a new block is typically simple: overwrite general_work and forecast

6 6 Recap: TinyOS r A free and open source component based operating system and platform targeting wireless sensor networks (WSNs) r Some design features m Problem: small footprint Idea: TinyOS: Generate customized OS + application: support one app at a time but flexible reprogramming

7 7 TinyOS: Software Concepts r A TinyOS consists of one or more components/modules linked together m software components motivated by hardware component r Each component specifies: m it provides some interfaces allows other components to control it m also uses some interfaces control other components

8 8 Interface r An interface declares m a set of functions called commands that provider must implement m another set of functions called events that the interface user must implement A uses interfaces I1 and I2 B provides I1 C provides I2 commands events commands events I1 I2 C provides I3

9 9 Interface: Examples interface StdControl { command result_t init(); command result_t start(); command result_t stop(); } interface Timer { command result_t start( char type, uint32_t interval); command result_t stop(); event result_t fired(); } interface ADC { async command result_t getdata(); async command result_t getContinuousData(); event result_t dataReady(uint 16_t data); }

10 10 Example Application r A simple TinyOS application which periodically reads in the light intensity value, computes a moving average, displays it on the LED

11 11 Module: Definition module SenseTaskM { provides { interface StdControl; } uses { interface Timer; interface ADC; interface StdControl as ADCControl; interface Leds; } A uses interfaces I1 and I2 B provides I1 C provides I2 commands events commands events I1 I2 C provides I3

12 12 Module: Implementation r Define m commands and event handlers m frame (storage) statically allocated, fixed size to know memory requirement and avoid overhead of dynamic allocation r See Component Internal State Internal Tasks CommandsEvents

13 13 Explicit Linking of Components Two types of components: m modules: individual components m configurations : assemble components together, connecting interfaces (objects) used by components to interfaces (objects) provided by others See

14 14 TinyOS Execution Model SenseTask Timer ADC start/stop fired getData dataReady LED ADCControl init/start/stop Design options? xxxOn/Off()

15 15 TinyOS Execution Model r Concurrency model: only two threads m long running tasks that can be interrupted by hardware event handlers r Tasks are posted to a FIFO queue m Each task is atomic with respect to other tasks m run to completion, but can be preempted by events m the task scheduler is a simple FIFO scheduler r Tasks perform the primary computation work m commands and event handlers post tasks m call lower level commands m signal higher level events m schedule other tasks within a component

16 16 Running tinyOS Program r make mica r ncc -o main.exe -target=mica r avr-objcopy --output-target=srec main.exe main.srec r Use uisp to install

17 17 A More Complete Sample Application r Sensor network monitoring m monitor temperature and light conditions m periodically transmit measurements to a base station m sensors can forward data for other sensors that are out of range of the base station m dynamically determine the correct routing topology for the network

18 18 Internal Component Graph RFM Radio byte Radio Packet UART UART Packet I2C Temp Light Active Messages Clocks bit byte packet Ad hoc Routing Application application HW SW

19 19 Message Send Transition r Total propagation delay up the 5 layer radio communication stack is about 80 instructions Timing diagram of event propagation

20 20 Evaluation: Storage Component NameCode Size (bytes) Data Size (bytes) Routing AM_dispatch AM_temperature AM_light AM RADIO_packet RADIO_byte RFM Light Temp UART UART_packet I2C 88 40 78 146 356 334 810 310 84 64 196 314 198 0 32 8 40 8 1 40 8 Processor_init TinyOS scheduler C runtime 172 178 82 30 16 0 Total3450226  Scheduler only occupies 178 bytes  Complete application only requires 3 KB of instruction memory and 226 bytes of data (less than 50% of the 512 bytes available)  Only processor_init, TinyOS scheduler, and C runtime are required

21 21 Evaluation: Timing OperationsCost (cycles) Time (µs) Normalized to byte copy Byte copy821 Post an Event Call a Command Post a task to scheduler Context switch overhead 10 46 51 2.5 11.5 12.75 1.25 6 Interrupt (hardware cost)92.251 Interrupt (software cost)7117.759

22 Summary: TinyOS r Components m provide commands and require callback hooks for event-driven programming r Configurations m Link components r TinyOS m an app (configuration) at a time, linking only necessary components r Two threads exec m one for event m one for task 22 interface ADC { async command result_t getdata(); async command result_t getContinuousData(); event result_t dataReady(uint 16_t data); } configuration SenseTask { // this module does not provide any interfaces } implementation { components Main, SenseTaskM, LedsC, TimerC, DemoSensorC as Sensor; Main.StdControl -> TimerC; Main.StdControl -> Sensor; Main.StdControl -> SenseTaskM; SenseTaskM.Timer -> TimerC.Timer[unique("Timer")]; SenseTaskM.ADC -> Sensor; SenseTaskM.Leds -> LedsC; }

23 Discussion: Compare TinyOS/GNURadio r What are some similar software concepts? r What are some differences? 23

24 Discussion r Can we use GNURadio/TinyOS for writing mobile applications for mobile phones/tablets, or in other words, what are missing? 24

25 25 Java2 Micro Edition (J2ME)

26 26 Outline r Admin and recap r Mobile/wireless development framework m GNURadio m TinyOS m J2ME

27 27 Java Platforms r Java2 is divided into three platforms m J2EE (Java2 Enterprise Edition) business applications m J2SE (Java2 Standard Edition) general applications m J2ME (Java2 Micro Edition) small devices such as mobile phone, PDA, car navigation r Oracle’s claims on Java on mobile devices m

28 28 J2ME Basic Concepts: Versioning r To accommodate heterogeneous mobile devices, define configurations and profiles -A configuration provides fundamental services for a broad category of devices (e.g., lang, io, util) - A profile supports higher-level services common to a more specific class of devices or market (e.g., life cycle, GUI) -An optional package adds specialized services that are useful on devices of many kinds, but not necessary on all of them

29 29 J2ME 128-512K mem 16-32 bit proc Upto 2M mem 32 bit proc

30 30 Example J2ME Configurations r Connected Limited Device Configuration (CLDC) m 160 KB to 512 KB of total memory available m 16-bit or 32-bit processor m low power consumption and often operating with battery power m connectivity with limited bandwidth m examples: cell phones, certain PDAs r Connected Device Configuration (CDC) m 2 MB or more memory for Java platform m 32-bit processor m high bandwidth network connection, most often using TCP/IP m examples: set-top boxes, certain PDAs

31 31 CLDC Available Packages r java.lang r java.util r r

32 32 CLDC Classes r Boolean r Byte r Character r Class r Integer r Long r Math r Object r Runnable r Runtime r Short r String r StringBuffer r System r Thread r Throwable r Calendar r Date r Enumeration r Hashtable r Random r Stack r TimeZone r Vector r ByteArrayOutputStream r ByteArrayInputStream r DataOuput r DataInput r DataInputStream r DataOutputStream r InputStream r InputStreamReader r OutputStream r OutputStreamWriter r PrintStream r Reader r Writer java.lang java.util

33 33 Example J2ME Profiles r Mobile Information Device Profile (MIDP) m GUI, multimedia and game functionality, end-to-end security, and greater networked connectivity m mobile phones and entry level PDAs r Foundation Profile m set of Java APIs that support resource-constrained devices without a standards-based GUI system r Personal Profile m Full set of AWT APIs, including support for applets and Xlets m CDC + Foundation Profile + Personal Profile for high-end PDA r …

34 34 Mobile Phone Framework

35 35 MIDP Hardware r Memory (added to CLDC memory) m 128 KB non-volatile for MIDP components m 8 KB non-volatile for application persistent data m 32 KB volatile for KVM r Display m screen 96x54 m display depth 1-bit m pixel shape (aspect ratio) 1:1

36 36 MIDP Hardware r Input (one or more) m one-handed keyboard (ITU-T phone keypad) m two-handed keyboard (QWERTY keyboard) m or touch screen r Networking m two-way m wireless m possibly intermittent m limited bandwidth

37 37 MIDP Packages r r java.lang r java.util r r javax.microedition.lcdui r javax.microedition.rms r javax.microedition.midlet r r r r javax.microedition.pki addition in version 2.0 version 1.0

38 38 MIDP Technology Stack Mobile Information Device Profile KVM CLDC = KVM + J2ME Core APIs in this example DSP chip (e.g., ARM) J2ME core APIs Your MIDlet Yellow Pages, train schedules and ticketing, games… UI, HTTP networking... Threads, no Floats… 32-bit RISC, 256K ROM, 256K Flash, 64K RAM

39 MIDlet m GUI based m Each MIDP has one instance of Display Display.getDisplay(this) to get the manager At any instance of time at most one Displayable object can be shown on the display device and interact with user –display.setCurrent( ) 39

40 40 MIDlet r An MIDP application is called a MIDlet m similar to the J2SE applet r A MIDlet moves from state to state in the lifecycle, as indicated m start – acquire resources and start executing m pause – release resources and become quiescent (wait) m destroy – release all resources, destroy threads, and end all activity PauseActiveDestroyed startApp destroyApp pauseApp destroyApp

41 MIDP Visual Display r Each MIDP has one instance of Display  Display.getDisplay(this) to get the manager  At any instance of time at most one Displayable object can be shown on the display device and interact with user display.setCurrent( ) 41

42 MIDP Visual Display r Displayable m Canvas GameCanvas m Screen Alert, List, TextBox, Form r Form can contain multiple form items for organization m Labels, Image Items, String Items, Text Fields, Date Fields, Gauges, Choice Groups 42

43 MIDP: User Interaction  Displayable objects can declare commands and declare a command listener: m addCommand(Command cmd) m addCommandListener() r Command(,, ) m Type: BACK, CANCEL, EXIT, HELP, ITEM, OK, SCREEN, and STOP 43

44 44 import javax.microedition.midlet.*; import javax.microedition.lcdui.*; public class HelloWorldMIDlet extends MIDlet implements CommandListener { private Command exitCommand; private Display display; private TextBox t; public HelloWorldMIDlet() { display = Display.getDisplay(this); exitCommand = new Command("Exit", Command.EXIT, 2); t = new TextBox(“CS434", "Hello World!", 256, 0); t.addCommand(exitCommand); t.setCommandListener(this); } public void startApp() { display.setCurrent(t); } public void pauseApp() { } public void destroyApp(boolean unconditional) { } public void commandAction(Command c, Displayable s) { if (c == exitCommand) { destroyApp(false); notifyDestroyed(); }

45 MIDP: Persistent State r Record store defined in javax.microedition.rms r Record store identified by name: m static String[] listRecordStores(); m recordStore = RecordStore.openRecordStore("scores", true); m recordId = addRecord(byte[] data, int offset, int numBytes); m getRecord(int recordId); 45

46 46 Summary : J2ME r Scale down a popular programming environment to ease learning r Use virtual machines to mask device heterogeneity r Use configuration/profiling to handle device heterogeneity and avoid using lowest common denominator r MIDLet to manage app life cycle r Displayable to visual display, commands and provides command listener r Introduce persistent record store

47 Discussion on J2ME r What designs of J2ME do you like and hence expect newer frameworks (e.g., IOS, Android) may have too? r What features do you think are missing in J2ME? 47

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