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A System Architecture for Tiny Networked Devices

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Presentation on theme: "A System Architecture for Tiny Networked Devices"— Presentation transcript:

1 A System Architecture for Tiny Networked Devices
Jason Hill U.C. Berkeley 9/22/2000

2 Who We Are: The Tiny OS Group
Jason Hill – CS Grad Student Robert Szewczyk – CS Grad Student Alec Woo – CS Grad Student Seth Hollar – EE Grad Student David Culler (Prof.) Kris Pister (Prof.)

3 Goals: To develop an ultra low power networked sensor platform, including hardware and software, that enables low-cost deployment of sensor networks. To be a system level bridge that combines advances in low power RF technology with MEMS transducer technology.

4 Key Characteristics of TNDs
Small physical size and low power consumption => Limited Physical Parallelism and Controller Hierarchy => primitive direct-to-device interface Concurrency-intensive operation flow-thru, not wait-command-respond => must handle multiple inputs and outputs simultaneously Diverse in Design and Usage application specific, not general purpose huge device variation => efficient modularity => migration across HW/SW boundary Largely Unattended & Numerous => robust operation => narrow interfaces

5 ‘Mote’–The Hardware COTS Dust weC Mote 4Mhz, 8bit MCU (ATMEL)
512 bytes RAM, 8K ROM 900Mhz Radio (RF Monolithics) ft. range Temperature Sensor Light Sensor LED outputs Serial Port

6 Tiny OS – The Software Provides a component based model abstracting hardware specifics from application programmer Utilizes an event based programming model to allow high levels of concurrency Allows multiple applications to be “running” Services Provided Include: Active Messages Based messaging protocol Periodic Timer Events Asynchronous access to UART data transfers Mechanism for Static, Persistent Storage Can “Swap Out” system components to get necessary functionality. Complete applications fit in 4KB of ROM and 256B RAM.

7 Second Generation ‘Mote’
Two Board Sandwich Main CPU board with Radio Communication Secondary Sensor Board Allows for expansion and customization Current sensors include: Acceleration, Magnetic Field, Temperature, Pressure, Humidity, Light, and RF Signal Strength. Can control RF transmission strength

8 Multi-Hop Routing Demo
Sensors automatically assemble and determine routing topology Parallel Breadth First Search Shortest path to all nodes remembered Base station broadcasts out routing information Individuals listen for and propagate route update N messages sent Generational scheme to prevent cycles in routing table Base

9 Demo (cont.) Sensor information propagated up routing tree
Statistics kept for number of readings received and number of packets forwarded by each node Sensors transmit data when “significant” events occur or when time limit is exceeded Must be continuously listening for packets to be forwarded – impacts power considerations

10 Short Term Goals: Deploy sensor net in Soda for week long trial runs
Amass a collection of hundreds of first generation nodes Improve Radio communication reliability Bring online second generation hardware Target Civil Engineering’s and The Center For the Built Environment’s needs to get a real world deployment. Support applications where data is “picked up” by UAV’s

11 Tiny OS Internals Scheduler and Graph of Components
constrained two-level scheduling model: tasks + events Component: Frame (storage) Tasks (concurrency) Commands, and Handlers (events) Constrained Storage Model frame per component, shared stack, no heap Very lean multithreading Layering components issue commands to lower-level components event signal high-level events, or call lower-level commands Guarantees no cycles in call chain

12 TOS Component /* Messaging Component Declaration */ //ACCEPTS:
init Power(mode) TX_packet(buf) TX_packet_done (success) RX_packet_done (buffer) Internal State power(mode) send_msg(addr, type, data) msg_rec(type, data) msg_send_done (success) send_msg_thread /* Messaging Component Declaration */ //ACCEPTS: char TOS_COMMAND(AM_SEND_MSG)(char addr,char type, char* data); void TOS_COMMAND(AM_POWER)(char mode); char TOS_COMMAND(AM_INIT)(); //SIGNALS: char AM_MSG_REC(char type, char* data); char AM_MSG_SEND_DONE(char success); //HANDLES: char AM_TX_PACKET_DONE(char success); char AM_RX_PACKET_DONE(char* packet); //USES: char TOS_COMMAND(AM_SUB_TX_PACKET)(char* data); void TOS_COMMAND(AM_SUB_POWER)(char mode); char TOS_COMMAND(AM_SUB_INIT)();

13 Event Based Prog. Model System composed of state machines
Each State Machine is a TinyOS “component” Command and event handlers transition a component from one state to another Quick, low overhead, non-blocking state transmissions Allows many independent components to share a single execution context Emerging as design paradigm for large scale systems “Tasks” are used to perform computational work Run to completion, Atomic with respect to each other

14 Composition to Complete Application
Route map router sensor appln application Active Messages packet Radio Packet Serial Packet Temp SW byte UART HW Radio byte i2c photo bit RFM clocks

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