Presentation on theme: "Enabling Others to Act Module V Introductory thoughts ► Leader – Follower is a relationship ► This principle focuses on the follower ► “Foster collaboration."— Presentation transcript:
Module V Introductory thoughts ► Leader – Follower is a relationship ► This principle focuses on the follower ► “Foster collaboration by promoting cooperative goals and building trust” ► “Seeing the magnificence in all people – dedicated to their fullest success”
Module V Themes ► Collaboration ► Trust ► Connecting ► Empowering ► Environment for success ► Coaching ► Information ► Accountability ► Delegating ► Power ► Influence
Module V Summary of Leadership Theory ► Trait Theory ► Situational Theory ► Charismatic Theory ► Transformational Leadership
Module V Trait Theory ► Personal characteristics of a leader ► Bass (1990) – prior to WW II Capacity (e.g. intelligence) Achievement (e.g. Scholarship) Responsibility (e.g. Self-confidence) Participation (e.g. socialbility) Status (e.g. economics) Situation (e.g. skills)
Module V Trait Theory ► Post WW II (Stogdill, 1970) Skill (e.g. Intellectual) Relational behaviors (e.g. nurturing) Personal (e.g. able to communicate)
Module V Power and influence Theories ► Power is the capacity to take action or force a desired outcome or behavior in others (Janda, 1960) ► Influence is the subordinate’s perception of a leader’s power to take action (Ziller, 1955)
Module V Five types of Power (French & Raven) ► Personal power Personal Positional ► Positional power Reward Coercive Legitimate
Module V Behavioral Theories ► Style approach of leaders ► Behavior and relationships ► McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
Module V Situational Theories ► Leaders behave differently according to context ► Contingency Model (Fiedler, 1967) ► Situational Model (Hersey&Blanchard, 1969)
Module V Situational Theory ► Golemans model (2002) Coaching leaders Pacesetting leaders Democratic leaders Affiliative leaders Authoritative leaders Coercive leaders
Module V Situational Theory ► Hersey & Blanchard (1969)
Module V Situational Approach Description “Leaders match their style to the competence and commitment of subordinates” ► Developed by Hersey & Blanchard (1969); based on Reddins (1967) 3-D Management Style ► Leader-focused perspective ► Used extensively in organizational leadership training and development ► Comprised of: Directive dimension Supportive dimension ► Each dimension must be applied appropriately in a given situation ► Leaders evaluate employees to assess their competence and commitment to perform a given task PerspectivePerspectiveDefinitionDefinition
Module V Leadership Styles ► The behavior pattern of an individual who attempts to influence others; includes: Directive (task) behaviors Supportive (relationship) behaviors ► Directive behaviors - Help group members in goal achievement via one-way communication through: Giving directions Establishing goals & how to achieve them Methods of evaluation & time lines Defining roles ► Supportive behaviors - Assist group members via two-way communication in feeling comfortable with themselves, co- workers, and situation DefinitionDefinition Dimension Definitions
Module V The Four Leadership Styles High Developmental Level of Followers Delegating Low Supportive Low Directive S 4 Supporting High Supportive Low Directive S 3 Coaching High Directive High Supportive S 2 Directing High Directive Low Supportive S 1 LowHigh Supportive Behavior Directive Behavior D4D3D2D1 DevelopedDeveloping HighModerate Low
Module V S1 - Directing Style ► Leader focuses communication on goal achievement ► Spends LESS time using supportive behaviors Directing High Directive Low Supportive S 1
Module V S2 - Coaching Style ► Leader focuses communication on BOTH goal achievement and supporting subordinates’ socioemotional needs ► Requires leader involvement through encouragement and soliciting subordinate input Coaching High Directive High Supportive S 2
Module V S3 - Supporting Style ► Leader does NOT focus solely on goals; rather the leader uses supportive behaviors to bring out employee skills in accomplishing the task ► Leader delegates day-to- day decision-making control, but is available to facilitate problem solving Supporting High Supportive Low Directive S 3
Module V S4 - Delegating Style ► Leader offers LESS task input and social support; facilitates subordinates’ confidence and motivation in relation to the task ► Leader lessens involvement in planning, control of details, and goal clarification ► Gives subordinates control and refrains from intervention and unneeded social support Delegating Low Supportive Low Directive S 4
Module V Development Levels ► The degree to which subordinates have the competence and commitment necessary to accomplish a given task or activity DefinitionDefinition Dimension Definitions D1 LowCompetence Low Competence High Commitment D2 Some Competence Low Commitment D3 Mod-High Competence Low Commitment D4 High Competence High Commitment D4D3D2D1 DevelopedDeveloping HighModerate Low Developmental Level Of Followers
How Does the Situational Approach Work? ► Focus of Situational Approach ► Strengths ► Criticisms ► Application
Module V Situational Approach ► Centered on the idea subordinates vacillate along the developmental continuum of competence and commitment ► Leader effectiveness depends on assessing subordinate’s developmental position and adapting his/her leadership style to match subordinate developmental level FocusFocus “The Situational approach requires leaders to demonstrate a strong degree of flexibility.”
Module V Strengths ► Marketplace approval. Situational leadership is perceived as providing a credible model for training employees to become effective leaders. ► Practicality. Situational leadership is a straightforward approach that is easily understood and applied in a variety of settings. ► Prescriptive value. Situational leadership clearly outlines what you should and should not do in various settings. ► Leader flexibility. Situational leadership stresses that effective leaders are those who can change their style based on task requirements and subordinate needs. ► Differential treatment. Situational leadership is based on the premise that leaders need to treat each subordinate according to his/her unique needs.
Module VCriticisms ► Lack of an empirical foundation raises theoretical considerations regarding the validity of the approach ► Further research is required to determine how commitment and competence are conceptualized for each developmental level ► Conceptualization of commitment itself is very unclear ► Replication studies fail to support basic prescriptions of situational leadership model ► Does not account for how particular demographics influence the leader-subordinate prescriptions of the model ► Fails to adequately address the issue of one-to-one versus group leadership in an organizational setting ► Questionnaires are biased in favor of situational leadership
Module V Application ► Often used in consulting because it’s easy to conceptualize and apply ► Straightforward nature makes it practical for managers to apply ► Breadth of situational approach facilitates its applicability in virtually all organizations
Module V Leader-Member Exchange Theory(LMX) ► “Special Relationships” ► Not everyone is treated the same ► Relationships change over time
Module V LMX Theory Leader-member Exchange Relationships Perceptions of Followers Compatibility Competence Personality “-”“+” Followers Over time Defined into “in-group” Followers Over time Defined into “out-group”
Module V Questions for discussion ► Do the leadership style and follower maturity/readiness match-ups in the situational model make sense based on your personal experiences? ► If you are in the “out-group” with a leader, what could you do to move into the “in- group”?
Module V Charismatic Leader Theory ► Charismatic leadership is leadership based on the leader's ability to communicate and behave in ways that reach followers on a basic, emotional way, to inspire and motivate. We often speak of some sports and political leaders as charismatic (or not) -- an example being John F. Kennedy. ► It's difficult to identify the characteristics that make a leader "charismatic", but they certainly include the ability to communicate on a very powerful emotional level, and probably include some personality traits. ► Developing "charisma" is difficult, if not impossible for many people, but luckily charismatic leadership is not essential to be an effective leader. Many other characteristics are involved in leading effectively, and there is significant evidence to indicate that it simply is not necessary to have this elusive charisma to lead others well.
Module V Charismatic Leader Theory ► Relying on charisma to lead also can be problematic. For example, there have been many charismatic leaders who lack other leadership characteristics and skills (e.g. integrity) and lead their followers into situations that turn out horribly -- think political leaders such as Stalin, Hitler, and even business leaders (Enron). ► Finally, in organizations lead by charismatic leaders, there is a major problem regarding succession. What happens when a leader who relies on charisma leaves? Often the organization founders because the ability to lead rested with one person's charisma.
Module V Transformational Leaders ► Transformational Leadership - More of a Partner Approach ► If transactional leadership involves the use of leadership power over rewards and punishments to "lead", transformational leadership can be characterized as a process where leader and followers work together, in a way that changes, or transforms the organization, the employees/followers and the leader. transactional leadershiptransactional leadership ► It recognizes that real leadership involves transformation and learning on the part of follow AND leader. As such it is more of a partnership, even though there are power imbalances involved.
Module V Trust and Leaders ► http://www.olin.wustl.edu/faculty/dirks/trus t%20in%20leader%20chapter.pdf http://www.olin.wustl.edu/faculty/dirks/trus t%20in%20leader%20chapter.pdf http://www.olin.wustl.edu/faculty/dirks/trus t%20in%20leader%20chapter.pdf ► Positive interdependence ► Mutual respect and fairness ► Facilitating others to sources of power ► Sharing of information and resources ► Create an environment for informal opportunities and interactions
Module V “The Last Castle” ► What are the traits of prisoner Irwin? ► Relationships: Irwin and Yates Irwin and Aguilar Irwin and the sergeant major How is situational leadership shown in these relationships? ► Contrast the leadership styles of Winter and Irwin (formal/informal, transactional/transformational etc.)
Module V Transformational Leaders ► While transactional leadership involves telling, commanding, or ordering (and using contingent rewards) transformational leadership is based on inspiring, getting followers to buy-in voluntarily, creating common vision. ► Transformational leadership is what most of us refer to when we talk about great leaders in our lives and in society