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Learning Rules from System Call Arguments and Sequences for Anomaly Detection Gaurav Tandon and Philip Chan Department of Computer Sciences Florida Institute.

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Presentation on theme: "Learning Rules from System Call Arguments and Sequences for Anomaly Detection Gaurav Tandon and Philip Chan Department of Computer Sciences Florida Institute."— Presentation transcript:

1 Learning Rules from System Call Arguments and Sequences for Anomaly Detection Gaurav Tandon and Philip Chan Department of Computer Sciences Florida Institute of Technology

2 Overview Related work in system call sequence-based systems Problem Statement – Can system call arguments as attributes improve anomaly detection algorithms? Approach –LERAD ( a conditional rule learning algorithm) –Variants of attributes Experimental evaluation Conclusions and future work

3 Related Work tide (time-delay embedding) Forrest et al, 1996 stide (sequence time-delay embedding) Hofmeyr et al, 1999 t-stide (stide with frequency threshold) Warrender et al, 1999 Variable length sequence-based techniques (Wespi et al, 1999, 2000; Jiang et al, 2001) False Alarms !!

4 Problem Statement Current models – system call sequences What else can we model? System call arguments open(“/etc/passwd”) open(“/users/readme”)

5 Approach Models based upon system calls 3 sets of attributes - system call sequence -system call arguments -system call arguments + sequence Adopt a rule learning approach - Learning Rules for Anomaly Detection (LERAD)

6 Learning Rules for Anomaly Detection (LERAD) [Mahoney and Chan, 2003] A, B, and X are attributes a, b, x1, x2 are values to the corresponding attributes p - probability of observing a value not in the consequent r - cardinality of the set {x1, x2, …} in the consequent n - number of samples that satisfy the antecedent

7 Overview of LERAD 4 steps involved in rule generation: 1From a small training sample, generate candidate rules and associate probabilities with them 2Coverage test to minimize the rule set 3Update rules beyond the small training sample 4Validating rules on a separate validation set

8 Step 1a: Generate Candidate Rules Two samples are picked at random (say S1 and S2) Matching attributes A, B and C are picked in random order (say B, C and A) These attributes are used to form rules with 0, 1, 2 conditions in the antecedent Training Data ABCD Random Sample S11234 Random Sample S21235 Random Sample S36784 TrainingS41095 TrainingS51234 ValidationS66385

9 Step 1b: Generate Candidate Rules Training Data ABCD Random Sample S11234 Random Sample S21235 Random Sample S36784 TrainingS41095 TrainingS51234 ValidationS66385 Adding values to the consequent based on a subset of the training set (say S1-S3) Probability estimate p associated with every rule when it is violated ( instead of in each rule) Rules are sorted in increasing order of the p

10 Step 2: Coverage Test Training Data ABCD Random Sample S112 (Rule 2)34 Random Sample S212 (Rule 2)35 Random Sample S367 (Rule 1)84 TrainingS41095 TrainingS51234 ValidationS66385 Obtain minimal set of rules

11 Step 2: Coverage Test Training Data ABCD Random Sample S112 (Rule 2)34 Random Sample S212 (Rule 2)35 Random Sample S367 (Rule 1)84 TrainingS41095 TrainingS51234 ValidationS66385 Obtain minimal set of rules

12 Step 3: Updating rules beyond the training samples Training Data ABCD Random Sample S11234 Random Sample S21235 Random Sample S36784 TrainingS41095 TrainingS51234 ValidationS66385 Extend rules to the entire training (minus validation) set (samples S1-S5)

13 Step 4: Validating rules Training Data ABCD Random Sample S11234 Random Sample S21235 Random Sample S36784 TrainingS41095 TrainingS51234 ValidationS66385 Test the set of rules on the validation set (S6) Remove rules that produce anomaly

14 Step 4: Validating rules Training Data ABCD Random Sample S11234 Random Sample S21235 Random Sample S36784 TrainingS41095 TrainingS51234 ValidationS66385 Test the set of rules on the validation set (S6) Remove rules that produce anomaly

15 Learning Rules for Anomaly Detection (LERAD) t - time interval since the last anomalous event i - index of the rule violated Non-stationary model - only the last occurrence of an event is important

16 Variants of attributes 3 variants (i)S-LERAD: system call sequence (ii)A-LERAD: system call arguments (iii)M-LERAD: system call arguments + sequence

17 S-LERAD System call sequence-based LERAD Samples comprising 6 contiguous system call tokens input to LERAD SC1SC2SC3SC4SC5SC6 mmap()munmap()mmap()munmap()open()close() munmap()mmap()munmap()open()close()open() mmap()munmap()open()close()open()mmap()

18 A-LERAD Samples containing system call along with arguments System call will always be a condition in the antecedent of the rule SCArg1Arg2Arg3Arg4Arg5

19 M-LERAD Combination of system call sequences and arguments

20 1999 DARPA IDS Evaluation [ Lippmann et al, 2000] Week 3 – Training data (~ 2.1 million system calls) Weeks 4 and 5 – Test Data (over 7 million system calls) Total – 51 attacks on the Solaris host

21 Experimental Procedures Preprocessing the data: BSM audit log Applications Processes Model per application Merge all alarms PiPi Application 1 PjPj PkPk Application 2 Application N …

22 Evaluation Criteria Attack detected if alarm generated within 60 seconds of occurrence of the attack Number of attacks 10 false alarms/day Time and storage requirements

23 Detections vs. false alarms

24 Percentage detections per attack type

25 Comparison of CPU times Application Training Time (seconds) [on 1 week of data] Testing Time (seconds) [on 2 weeks of data] t-stideM-LERADt-stideM-LERAD ftpd Telnetd ufsdump tcsh login sendmail quota sh

26 Storage Requirements More data extracted (system calls + arguments) – more space Only during training – can be done offline Small rule set vs. large database (stide, t-stide) e.g. for tcsh application: 1.5 KB file for the set of rules (M-LERAD) 5 KB for sequence database (stide)

27 Summary of contributions Introduced argument information to model systems Enhanced LERAD to form rules with system calls as pivotal attributes LERAD with argument information detects more attacks than existing system call sequence based algorithms (tide, stide, t-stide). Sequence + argument based system generally detected the most attacks with different false alarm rates Argument information alone can be used effectively to detect attacks at lower false alarm rates Less memory requirements during detection as compared to sequence based techniques

28 Future Work More $$$$$$$$$$

29 Future Work A richer representation More attributes - time between subsequent system calls Anomaly score t-stide vs. LERAD

30 Thank You


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