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Network Traffic Anomaly Detection Based on Packet Bytes Matthew V. Mahoney Florida Institute of Technology

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Presentation on theme: "Network Traffic Anomaly Detection Based on Packet Bytes Matthew V. Mahoney Florida Institute of Technology"— Presentation transcript:

1 Network Traffic Anomaly Detection Based on Packet Bytes Matthew V. Mahoney Florida Institute of Technology

2 Limitations of Intrusion Detection Host based (audit logs, virus checkers) –Cannot be trusted after a compromise Network signature detection (SNORT, Bro) –Cannot detect novel attacks –Alarm floods (network traffic is bursty) Address/port anomaly detection (ADAM, SPADE, eBayes) –Cannot detect attacks on public servers (web, mail, DNS)

3 Problem Statement Detect (not prevent) attacks in network traffic Train on attack-free traffic only Model of normal traffic IDS Training – no attacks Test data with attacksAlarms

4 Approach Model client protocols via inbound traffic –9 protocols: IP, TCP, HTTP, SMTP … –Beginning of request only (~ 2% of traffic) Test each packet independently Unusual bytes = hostile (sometimes) –Values seen but not often or recently –Values never seen in training (higher score)

5 Attributes: 48 IP Packet Bytes HdrTOSLen ID DFFrag TTLTCPChk Src Dst SP DP80 Seq Ack Hdr..AP.Win Chk Urg GET/HT

6 Probability of Previously Seen Values Frequency model: P(X) ≈ f x = n x /n = 7/10 Time based model: P(X) ~ 1/t x = 1/4 Hybrid model: P(X) ~ f x /t x = 7/40 Anomaly score of X ~ 1/P(X) ~ t x /f x ≈ 5.7 Example: XXXXXXXOOO

7 Probability of Novel Values Frequency model: P(not X, O) ≈ r/n = 2/10 –r = Number of observed values = 2 Time model: P(not X, O) ~ 1/t = 1/3 –t = Time since last novel value = 3 Hybrid model: P ~ r/nt = 2/30 Anomaly score = 1/P = tn/r = 15 Example: XXXXXXXOOO

8 1999 DARPA IDS Evaluation 7 days training data with no attacks 2 weeks test data with 177 visible attacks SunOSSolarisLinuxWinNT IDS Victims Internet (simulated) Attacks

9 Injecting Real Background Traffic Collected on a university departmental web server SunOSSolarisLinuxWinNT IDS Internet (simulated and real) Attacks Real web server

10 Evaluation Criteria Must identify target address Must identify time within 60 seconds Anomaly score threshold to allow 10 false alarms per day (100 total) Evaluated by percent of visible attacks detected –Evidence of attack in sniffer traffic –Other systems may use audit logs, BSM, etc.

11 Percent of Attacks Detected

12 Detection/False Alarm Tradeoff Simulated Traffic Mixed Real Traffic False alarms per day Percent Detected

13 Example Detections AttackAnomalyCause Satan – probe tests for many common vulnerabilities Unused dest. port 46 User behavior Dosnuke – Netbios TCP urgent data crashes Windows TCP urgent flag Bug in victim Sendmail – Mail server buffer overflow gives root shell Lowercase SMTP “mail” Bug in attack Portsweep (nmap) – Port scan with TCP FIN packets FIN without ACK flag Evasion

14 Summary Many novel attacks can be detected by a single abnormal inbound client packet Adaptive, no rule programming needed Hybrid model prevents alarm bursts Efficient –I/O bound – CPU is seconds per day –Memory < 1 MB

15 Limitations and Future Work False alarms (unusual ≠ hostile) Better diagnostics (help the user dispose of alarms) Model other attributes (reassembled TCP, network state, event rates) Integrate with host and signature systems Test in live environment

16 Thank You


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