2Connecting to the Internet – Hardware Requirement MODEM56K or BroadbandMOdulation and DEModulationTelephone Line
3Connecting to the Internet - ISP ISP – Internet Service Provider(互聯網服務供應商)What has ISP done for you?It sends and receives data for you.It provides a connection between you and the other of the Internet.As shown in the animation below, the data is in fact handled by a number of ISP.Animation for connection to the Internet
4Is ISP running the Internet? No single organization runs the Internet.It is a large network of networks.These networks are linked by high-speed communication channels called backbones.Each Internet computer, called a host, is independent.
5Connecting to the Internet – Type of Access Dial-up Access(撥號上網)It needsa telephone lineMODEMUserdials a telephone number given by the ISP to connect to the server of the ISP.a user name and password to authenticate the user.User can access hosts on the InternetData transfer rate maximum of 56Kbps.
6Connecting to the Internet – Type of Access Broadband AccessIts speed is measured in Mbps (i.e. Mega bit per second)Unlike dial-up access, it requires a network card / LAN card but no modem required.
7Broadband Access - ADSL a technology for transmitting digital information at a high bandwidth on existing phone lines to homes and businesses.ISP adopting this technology in HK:Netvigator (網上行)
8Get to the Internet PPPoE Some broadband Internet service providers (ISPs) identify your computer on their networks using Point to Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE). If your ISP requires you to supply a name and password to access the Internet, it most likely uses this protocol (議定 ).
9Broadband Access - ADSL ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line)Asymmetric (不對稱) between download speed is faster.Download Speed – 1.5Mbps to 8MbpsUpload Speed – 16Kbps to 640KbpsComponents – Network card, ADSL MODEM, Telephone Line
10Broadband Access – Cable TV Network A Cable MODEM is used to enables user to connect the PC to a local cable TV line and receive data at about 10Mbps.ISP adopting this technology in HK:iCable (有線寬頻)
11Broadband Access – Cable TV Network Download and upload speed are the same, but the bandwidth (10Mbps) is shared among users at the same location(e.g. the same building)Hardware used – Network Card, Cable MODEM
12Broadband vs Dial-up Access Faster connection speed – up to 1.5Mbps to 10Mbps.No dialing required.Simultaneous use of data and voice connectionsie: unlike dial-up access, user can talk on the phone while surfing the Internet.
13How can we share Internet access in a LAN to a Broadband? A router(路由器) is needed to connect a LAN to the Internet.It will share the broadband access from one Internet account among all users in the LAN.
14Communication Protocol – TCP/IP communication protocol of the Internetset of rules used in message transmission on the Internet.computers need to use the same protocol if they need to communicate
16Advantages of TCP/IPIf we send the whole file without breaking it into packets,the whole message then has to be re-sent if the full message fails to reach its destinationif it is broken down into packets, then only the packet that fail to be sent are resent.Packet Animation
17Advantages of TCP/IPTransmission of data is not affected by the failure of any path:there are more than one path. Packets of data can be routed around the problem.the load of the line is evenly distributed.As long as the operating system supports TCP/IP, the computers can communicate through LAN and Internet.TCP Animation
18IP Address It identifies every host (computer) in any network. When a packet is transmitted over the Internet, it must carry the addresses of the sender and receiver computers so that the routers can choose the best path.
19IP Address – FormatThe IP address system currently using is called the IPv4 addressing system.
20Question regarding IP Address What is the range of the each set of numbers?As each computer in the Internet has a unique IP address, how many computer can be represented in the Internet?What can we do if the number of IP addresses is not enough?
21Real IP and Virtual IPImagine if there are not enough IP addresses in a network, what can we do?The solution is to use Virtual IP.
22How Virtual IP worksSome of the IP addresses are reserved for private network (ie: LAN). E.g. 10.X.X.X or X.XThe router will not route these IPs to the Internet, ie: it will route the data sending to these IPs inside the LAN.
23Static IP and Dynamic IP IP addresses that are fixed every time when the user connect to the Internet.Dynamic IPIP addresses that changes every time the user connect to the Internet.
24Domain Name System (DNS) At the command window, type in the command “ping what did you find? Why?To connect to a specific computer, we need to know its IP address.Connect to the Yahoo! webpage, we need to know its address, ie: type in the Internet browser.It is inconvenient to remember the meaningless IP address.
25DNS ServerDNS Server responsible for translating the address into the corresponding IP address.Try to get to the nba.com
26Web Server Web Server is a computer that delivers Web pages. A computer can become a web server by installing Web Server Program like Apache and IIS (Internet Information Server)
27Web Browser A software application used to display Web pages. Two most popular browsers are Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer (IE).Plug-in (外掛程式)The browser cannot play all format of audio or video files, so a plug-in program is needed to add support to these types of files.
28Case studiesIf the hosts (PCs) can communicate well in the LAN but they have difficulties to get to the Internet, what would be the problem?If you are a teacher and you have saved some document in a PC at school. You have checked the IP address of this PC is , are you able to get access to this PC at your home, why?Your PC at home cannot access to the web pages, e.g. however, your ISP tells you that your connection to the Internet works fine, what would be the problem?