2South African Government Interoperability Framework Using Enterprise Architecture to achieve InteroperabilityJulius SegoleChief Information OfficerDepartment of Social DevelopmentChairperson: GITO Council
5An ideal Architect An ideal architect should be a man of letters, a mathematician,familiar with historical studies,a diligent of philosophy,acquainted with music,not ignorant of medicine,learned in the responses of jurisconsultis,familiar with astronomy and astronomical calculations.- Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (Roman Architect – 25BC)
6More than a technical challenge Objective: Sell more Cola in Middle EastChallenge: LanguageSolution: Use PicturesOutcome: Drop in Cola $alesWhy: They read from RIGHT-TO-LEFT
7RationaleSoon after the democratic changes in South Africa a presidential commission on the transformation of government highlighted the challenges facing the new governmentAmong the challenges werelack of co-ordination,incompatibility of systems and architecture,waste of resources,IT not business process driven
8The Interconnectedness of Government LocalProvincialNationalSocial DevelopmentCorrectional ServicesDTILabourSARSAgricultureHome AffairsJusticeSecret ServiceWater Affairs & ForestryTransportHousingEducationPublic WorksSAPSSASSAHealthSafety & SecurityActivities in Government do not occur in isolationGovernment is large, complex and interconnectedIts systems are large, complex but disconnectedThe disconnected nature of systems within Government has a major impact on the lives of its Citizens and the quality and efficiency of the services
9Disconnectedness - Social Cluster Example Home AffairsTackling poverty remains one of Government’s top moral and political imperatives yet getting help from Government remains difficultCitizen has to ‘integrate’ Government by following arduous administrative processesGathering proof-of-eligibility alone can often take up to 24 months if not foreverOther impacts include:Duplication of administrative processesFraud and double-dippingThese has a negative implication for the achievement of Development Goals of the countryLand AffairsGather proof of plightSARSUIFSASSAAccess to GrantLocal GovAccess to Free Basic ServicesAs reiterated by the Deputy-President’s comments, technology has critical enabling role to play in helping the poorest of the poor, but in this case, it is proving to be more of a barrier than anything else as it is simply reinforcing the rigid, siloed nature of government functions.One cannot look at government functions within departments in isolation when striving to help citizens and deliver quality services. You need to consider the end-to-end processes e.g. SASSA grant application processing might take 3 days, but gathering evidence stakes 2 yearsThis is a simple example, but there are literally hundreds of processes impacting all areas of Government where the disconnected of Government affects the everyday lives of citizens, for instance:Processing of court casesProcessing of adoption casesRegistration and compliance of companies and individuals in economic activity imposing unnecessary costs to doing businessAccessing Social protection servicesPublic WorksPrioritisation and access for public works programmeEducationExemption from school feesHousingAccess to housing subsidyLabourDiversion to economic activity and enrolment totraining programme
10But the real challenges are Diverse and Fragmented ICT Planning Methods (Frameworks and Processes) Inconsistent EA Plans and reporting.Incomplete ICT System inventories in Government.Departmental EA Capability MaturityUnclear ICT Governance (responsibilities and guidance)Moving from “techno-centric” “information centric” “Business Centric” (exchanging data efficiently and integrate service delivery).Collaboration & Cooperation National priorities poorly co-ordinated and contractedThe priority of Performance over Conformance result in low levels of interoperability.Regulation and Security complexities often default to isolation of systems.
12Regulatory drivers* Chap 1, Part III:B,C – Strategic Planning Define Core ObjectivesDescribe Core and Support ActivitiesSpecify the Functions & StructuresSpecify the Main Services to customersChap 1, Part III.E – Information PlanningEstablish an Information PlanEstablish an Information Infrastructure Plan; andEstablish an Operational Plan to implement the aboveChap 5 – e-Government ComplianceComply with “ICT House of Values”Comply with MISS (Security Standard)Comply with MIOS (Interoperability Standard)Comply with GWEA (planned)* Public Service Regulations, 2001 (amended Mar 2009)
13Government developed ICT House of Values* ICT Planning (GWEA) → ICT Acquisition → ICT OperationsSecurityInteroperabilityReduced DuplicationEconomies of ScaleDigital InclusionLower CostCitizen ConvenienceIncreased ProductivityICT ValuePrinciples / PillarsMeans / Foundation/ ServicesThe government developed the IT House of Values to guide the ICT transformation agenda of the country. This is the enduring vision contained in many ICT policy documents of government and led to other initiatives to give expression to the ICT House of Values. These initiatives include among others the development of Architecture and interoperability framework. Government Wide Enterprise Architecture framework is the latest Architecture framework since the development initially of the Government IT Architecture (GITA) framework. The next slide provides an evolution of the architecture and interoperability frameworks.* From e-Government Policy, SITA Regulations & SITA Act (amended)13
14MIOS / GWEA Product Evolution ODFGWEAv1.0v1.2INTEROPERABILITYXMLMIOSv1&2UKe-GIFUMLTOGAF9v4.1ARCHITECTUREGITAv1.1v3v4ZachmanTOGAF8,MIOS = Minimum Interoperability StandardsGWEA = Government Wide Enterprise ArchitectureGITA = Government IT Architecture14
15EA Context Architecture / Planning Design / Development Production / OperationGWEA / MIOSISO (SDLC)ITIL / ISO 20000COBIT / ISO 38500ENTERPRISEARCHITECTURECAPABILITYSYSTEM ACQUISITION CAPABILITIES(Solution Architecture, Project Management,Procurement, Solution Development,Integration)ICT OPERATIONCAPABILITIESPUBLIC SERVICEDEVELOPMENT CAPABILITIESBuyBusiness ArchitectureTechnicalDesignBuildIS/ICTArchitectureBusiness IntegrationComponent VerificationIS/ICT IntegrationICT OpsBuss OpsBusiness Design & Dev(e.g. OD, Srv Dev)* From Forsberg & Mooz and ISO 15288; Corporate Governance not shown
18GWEA 1.2 Purpose & Applicability To define the minimum standard by which to use an Enterprise Architecture approach to develop and construct National and Departmental ICT Plans and Blueprints in the Government of South Africa.Applicabilityto all public and private entities that engage in an Enterprise Architecture Planning programme for or on behalf of the Government of South Africa.
25Interoperability in Government “Sometimes when I consider what tremendous consequences come from little things…I am tempted to think there are no little things.”- Bruce Barton25
26Interoperability – [Re-]defined Interoperable (Dictionary)adj; able to operate in conjunction [Concise Oxford Dictionary, 9th Edition]Interoperability (from the Web)The ability to exchange and use information. [Princeton]The ability of diverse systems and organizations to work together (interoperate). [Wikipedia]The ability of systems, units, or forces to provide data, information, materiel, and services to and accept the same from other systems, units, or forces, and to use the data, information, materiel, and services so exchanged to enable them to operate effectively together. [US DoD, DoDD ]The capability of systems to communicate with one another and to exchange and use information including content, format, and semantics [NIST]Mathematician's definition
27Interoperability levels* Physical InteroperabilityProtocol InteroperabilityData/Object InteroperabilityInformation InteroperabilityKnowledge/AwarenessAligned ProceduresAligned OperationsHarmonised Strategy/DoctrinePolitical ObjectivesNetwork CentricThinking(Joint-up Government)Organisational Interoperabilityorganisational componentsare able to perform seamlessly together.Technical Interoperability- technical issues of linking computer systems and services.Semantic Interoperability- ensuring the precise meaning of exchanged information between different kind of Information Systems.BusinessArchitecture &StandardsInformation-CentricThinkingIS/ICTArchitecture &StandardsThe developmentMIOSV5MIOSV4.1Techno-CentricThinking* Tolk, Andreas. “Beyond Technical Interoperability– Introducing a Reference Model for Measures of Merit for Coalition Interoperability.
28MIOS 4.1 Document Content 2.1Principles Foreword Executive Summary IntroDrivers for interoperabilityOpen StandardsOpen Standards OrganisationsPrinciples2.6 StandardsInterconnectivityData InteroperabilityWeb ServicesInformation AccessContent ManagementIdentifiersMobile PhonesBiometric data interchangeForewordExecutive Summary1. OverviewIntroScopeMain featuresImplementationManagement processGWEAStakeholder involvementRequirement for Next release.
31MIOS v5 (Proposed) 1/2 Enhance MIOS Document layout Introduce a reference model (something like a TRM)Add compliance guidelines for Suppliers and AcquirersEnhance MIOS Technology StandardsReview/Amend existing Standards Catalogue
32MIOS v5 (Proposed) 2/2Introduce “citizen centric” Data Schema’s for SA:Citizen/Identity data schemaE-Health Record data schemaJustice data Schema (JXML for RSA developed)Education Data SchemaAdministration (Finance, HR, SCM) data schemasPerformance Management data schemaImplementationConstitute National EA Governing Body.Strengthen MIOS Certification capabilityMeasure conformance of ICT system against MIOS.
33Conclusion “One's mind, once stretched by a new idea, never regains its original dimensions.” - Oliver Wendell Holmes33
34ConclusionAn early start in ICT transformation and development of Interoperability and architecture frameworks advanced South Africa’s development agenda in many areasThe deployment of a single government network based on open standards for all national and provincial departments. The network has evolved from the open network to a New Generation Network (NGN) featuring VOIP and QoS.The development of transversal applications (Basic Accounting System and now in development is Integrated Financial Management System) for use by all government departments at national and provincial level.Development of Integrated systems such as Integrated Justice System (IJS) integrating justice departments through the justice value chain (policing > investigation > prosecution > judgement > incarceration to rehabilitation) based on Justice XML (JXML) schema.Development of National Integrated Social Information System (NISIS) to support the war on poverty through integration of social data systems (Social Security, Education, Health, basic services, Housing, etc) , profiling of poor households and referral of targeted anti-poverty services to relevant providers.The development of common systems for government has facilitated the achievement of integrated service delivery enabling government to attain its developmental goals and reducing the cost of administration.
35Thank You Julius Segole Chief Information Officer Department of Social DevelopmentChairperson: GITO Council