5Unit 1000 Inlet MeteringFeed gas from the OPF enters unit 1000 between 65 to 95 bar at ~20o C.The gas leaves the unit at 60 bar at temperature of ~0o C.The feed gas from U1000 is fed to U1100.Unit 1000 consists of three parallel meter runs, each consisting of a feedgas mono-cyclone separator (V-1001A/B/C), and a flow/pressure controlstation.This maintains the feed gas supply pressure at 60 bar to the LNG plant.Each meter run is capable of supplying 33.3% of the overall design gasFlow for the two LNG trains.
6U-1000 Gas Inlet and Metering V1001 A/B/C gas separators with flow & pressure controlGas Pipeline From OPF
7Unit 1100 Acid Gas Removal unit. Purpose of the Acid Gas Removal unit is to removeCO2 and H2S from the natural gas.Why?To prevent freezing and blockages in the liquefaction unit (U1400).Each train has its own dedicated acid gas removal unit.The solvent used in the unit is Shell Sulfinol D.The solvent is made up of the following:Water 25%.Di-isopropanolamine (DIPA) 50%.Tetra-hydrothiophene-dioxide (Sulfolane) 25%.
8U-1100 Acid Gas Removal Unit U1100 Sulfinol TreatingSubstationElec/Inst
9U-1100 Acid Gas Removal Unit C-1101 – AbsorberV-1103– Regenerator Overhead AccumulatorC-1102 – RegeneratorV-1101– Feed Gas Knock-out Vessel
10Transporting C1101 for installation during construction
11U1100 Principle Operation Absorber Regenerator Lean amine CO2 Out Treated gasto driersLean amineCO2 OutAbsorberRegeneratorCO2 is soaked up by the amineand removed in the regeneratorTo fuelgasRich amineC1101Raw gasU1000C1102Heat InGAS SEPARATORV1102
12Purpose of U1300/U1350 Dehydration unit 1300 To remove water present in feed gas from Unit 1100.Why?To prevent downstream equipment blockage and damage by iceand hydrate formation during the gas liquefaction process.Mercury removal vessel 1350To remove trace quantities of mercury that could be present in thefeed to liquefaction.To prevent corrosion in the downstream equipment, and aluminium tube bundles of the MCHE’s.
13U-1300 Dehydration Unit and U-1350 Mercury Removal SubstationElec/Inst
14U-1300 Dehydration Unit and U-1350 Mercury Removal C-1351 – Mercury Absorbent VesselC-1301 A/B/C – Molsieve Dryer Vessels
16Purpose of Unit 1400In unit 1400, the feedgas is progressively cooled until it condenses at around –158 degrees C and is subcooled to –162 before running down to the storage tanks. This reduces the overall volume around 600 times allowing one LNG tanker able to carry 600 times more than if the natural gas remained in a gaseous state. (135,000m3 LNG = 81,000,000m3! gas)
17We have not changed this gas in anyway! REFRIGERATIONPRINCIPLESCompressing a gas makes its pressure and temperature rise because of the energy we have given it.Depressuring this gas again would result in the pressure and temperature returning to the same point as we started.We have not changed this gas in anyway!
18We can graph this and see exactly what has happened. REFRIGERATIONPRINCIPLESWe can graph this and see exactly what has happened.HOTHIGHTemperaturePressureCOLDLOWCompression0%0%100%
19REFRIGERATION PRINCIPLES This time, after compressing the gas we will cool it to remove the heat energy we gave it.HOTHIGHTemperaturePressureCOLDLOWCompression0%0%100%
20This time when we depressure the gas the temperature becomes very low! REFRIGERATIONPRINCIPLESThis time when we depressure the gas the temperature becomes very low!HOTHIGHTemperaturePressureAdditionaltemperaturedropCOLDLOWCompression0%0%100%
22Purpose of Unit 1400Treated feed gas from the mercury removal unit (U1350) is cooledagainst low pressure PMR in E-1402 and fed to the scrub columns.The scrub columns, C-1401 & C-1402, remove heavy hydrocarbons(C5+) and the LPG’s from the natural gas stream for 2 reasons.These gases will condense too early in the fractionation sectionThe LPG’s are used as the refrigerant in U1400 cooling circuits.The bottom product of the scrub columns is fed to the fractionation unit(U1500).
23Purpose of Unit 1400 (Cold End) SubstationElec/Inst
31Process Description - PMR The PMR (pre-mixed refrigerant) system utilizes pressurized PMR,a mixture of ethane and propane, evaporating at two pressures.This supplies refrigeration to the NG feed circuit, the MR circuit andthe fractionation unit.The PMR is compressed by gas turbine driven PMR compressorK1440, power assisted by PMR compressor helper motor/generator(KM-1440).
34Process Description - MR MR – Mixed RefrigerantThe refrigeration to fully liquefy the feed gas is provided by MR (mixed refrigerant).This is a mixture of nitrogen, methane, ethane and propane.The MR system is a closed loop refrigeration system utilizing twocompressors in series, K1420/30. They share a single shaft and are gasturbine driven.The LP MR compressor (K-1420) is a single stage axial machine and theHP MR Compressor (K‑1430) is a two stage centrifugal machine.The MR compressor starter/helper motor (KM‑1420) is used for startingthe compressor, and also to provide additional shaft power to maximizeLNG production.
3680 MW's of power!!! K-1420/K-1430 MR Compressor HELPER MOTOR MANHELPER MOTORCENTRIFUGAL COMPAXIAL COMPGAS TURBINE80 MW's of power!!!
37Process Description - End Flash System Nitrogen in the LNG stream leaving the MCHE’s is removed in the endflash vessel.The nitrogen and some light hydrocarbons leave the top of the endflash vessel and exchange cooling in the light MR/end flash gasexchanger.The gas is then compressed by the end flash gas compressor (K-1450)and routed via the end flash compressor after-cooler to the HP fuel gassystem.
39U1500 Process Description Purpose of Unit 1500: To remove heavy components from the feed gasTo extract refrigerant components, and make up ethane and propane for storage.Also to produce stabilized condensate for re-injection in the crude oil.Any LPG’s not used in the refrigerant circuit are re-injected back into the liquefaction section as part of the LNG rundown.
42U-1500 Fractionation Unit C-1501– Demethanizer Column C-1502– Deethanizer ColumnC-1503– Depropanizer ColumnC-1504– Debutanizer ColumnV-4201– Tempered Water Expansion Vessel
43U1600 Process DescriptionThe ethane and propane/PMR storage systems are common to both LNG Trains and are used primarily to supply start-up refrigerant for the PMR and MR cycles in the Liquefaction Unit, U-1400.The purpose of Unit 1600 is to provide storage for refrigerant grade ethane and propane produced in Unit 1500 De-ethaniser and the De-propaniser.
45LNG Storage TanksT-3102 LNG Tank No. 2T-3101 LNG Tank No. 1
46LNG Storage Tanks / Boil Off Gas To store and load Liquefied Natural Gas and to collect and compress the vapor generated from the process of filling the tanks.This is known as BOG (boil off gas) Vapor created when loading LNG ships (ship vapor return) is used used as fuel gas
47LNG Storage Tanks / Boil Off Gas There are two LNG Storage tanks each with a capacity of 100,000m3Eight loading pumps each with a discharge capacity of 1250 m3/HrOne boil off compressor with a capacity of 730T/DThere are Four loading arms, Two for LNG liquid, One vapour return arm & a spare for either liquid or vapour service allow ship loading to be carried out based on a 24 hour turn around.
48FLARE K3401 Boil off gas Fuel gas system End Flash compressor V3401 PCBoil off gas headerEnd Flash compressorTCV3401Vapour ArmLCLoading ArmT3100LNG Loading line
49Liquid disposal burners and Ops flare Emergency Flare stackUnit 6200 Flare systemLiquid disposal burners and Ops flare
50Unit 6200 Flare system FLARE Why do we have a Flare System? The flare system is used to collect and dispose vapour and liquid in a safe manner. (Safe disposal of Hydrocarbons, the first system online and the last system shut down)Flare SystemsEmergency operational system for cold, light, dry streams, liquid and vapour.Emergency operational system for warm, heavy, streams, liquid and vapour.Emergency operational system for LNG storage and loading, vapour.Operational flare system, vapour.LNG disposal system, liquid and vapour (start-up).Spare flare can be used for cold and warm service.FLARE
51Unit 6200 Flare system Warm Flare System (FWW) All the warm vapours are collected into a single 48” header which slopes to the liquid knock-out drum V The header is continuously purged with LP fuel gas at sufficient flow rate to keep velocity at the tip of flare stack. Nitrogen connection is also given as back-up purge source.Warm Liquid Disposal System (DHC)The warm liquids from manual drains are collected in a 4” header and routed to V Light components are flashed-off and burned in A-6201 (FWW) The accumulated liquid in V-6201 is pumped and transferred to warm liquid burner A-6204 by P-6201A/B via 6” line.
52Unit 6200 Flare system Cold Flare System (FCD) Cold dry and light hydrocarbon vapours from unit 1400, 1500 and 1600 are collected into a 48” header which slopes to the cold flare KO drum V-6202.The header is continuously purged with LP fuel gas. Nitrogen connection is also given as back-up purge source.Vapour from the cold flare KO drum is directed to the cold flare (A‑6202) through a 56” line.HP fuel gas is used as atomising gas to flare stack A-6202Cold Liquid Disposal System (DLH)All the cold liquids are collected into two 12” headers that are routed to the cold flare KO Drum (V‑6202). flashed vapours are removed and burned in A-6202.Operational Flare System (FOP)Any operationally initiated release is vented to a separate 16” FOP header.The vented gas is routed to V-6203 and burned in operational flare (A-6211)