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INDUSTRIAL HAZARDS AND SAFETY Prof. Dr. Basavaraj K. Nanjwade M. Pharm., Ph. D Department of Pharmaceutics KLE University College of Pharmacy BELGAUM-590010,

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Presentation on theme: "INDUSTRIAL HAZARDS AND SAFETY Prof. Dr. Basavaraj K. Nanjwade M. Pharm., Ph. D Department of Pharmaceutics KLE University College of Pharmacy BELGAUM-590010,"— Presentation transcript:

1 INDUSTRIAL HAZARDS AND SAFETY Prof. Dr. Basavaraj K. Nanjwade M. Pharm., Ph. D Department of Pharmaceutics KLE University College of Pharmacy BELGAUM , Karnataka, India Cell No: August 20121KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

2 CONTENTS Introduction Types of hazards Recommendations and Suggestions Industrial effluent testing and treatment Discussion on industrial accident case studies Questions References 24 August 20122KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

3 Industrial hazards: It can be defined as any condition produced by industries that may cause injury or death to personal or loss of product or property. INTRODUCTION 24 August 20123KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

4 HAZARDS PhysicalChemicalBiologicalMechanicalElectricalPollution 24 August 20124KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

5 Physical Hazards Heat & Cold 24 August 20125KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

6 Heat and Cold Burns Heat stroke Heat cramps Foot sore Immersion foot Frost bite Preventive Measures A reasonable temp. of C must be maintained 24 August 20126KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

7 24 August 2012KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani7 Physical Hazards Heat and Cold Noise

8  Auditory  Non auditory effects  Preventive measures a.At source: Source of noise can be enclosed with an insulation material or concrete wall. Proper maintenance of machinery b.By distance c.Personal protection against noise. 24 August 20128KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani Noise have two type of effects

9 Equipment noise sources,level & potential control solutions EquipmentSound level in dBA at 3 feet Possible noise control treatments Air coolers 87-94Aerodynamic fun blades,↓ revolutions/min ↑ pitch,↓ pressure drop Compressors Install mufflers on intake,& exhaust, enclosure the machine with casing, vibration isolation & lagging of piping system Electric motors Acoustically lined fun covers, enclosure 7 motor mutes 24 August 20129KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

10 Heater & furnaces Acoustic plenums, intake mufflers, lined & damped ducts Valves <80-108Avoid sonic velocities, limit pressure drop & mass flow, replace with special low noise valves Piping 9-105Inline silencers, vibration isolation Equipment noise sources,level & potential control solutions 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

11 24 August 2012KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani11 Physical hazards Heat & Cold NoiseRadiation

12 Radiation are divided into two groups NaturalMan made Cosmic raysMedical /dental x-rays isotopes Environmental (radioactive elements e.g. uranium) Occupational exposure Internal (potassium,)Nuclear radioactive fallout Approx 0.1 rad/yrMiscellaneous Use of radio active substances by different industries 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

13 Somatic Genetic i.Preventive measures ii.Radiation source should be housed in a building that shields any surrounding area. iii.Radiation badges should be worn. iv.Periodical medical examination. v.Proper use of lead shields & lead rubber aprons. 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani Effect of hazards

14 24 August 2012KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani14 Physical Hazards Heat & Cold NoiseRadiation Fire & Explosion

15 Causes Smoking in the factory Defective heating equipment, electrical equipment & wiring. Explosive gas leakage. Inadequate protection of electric motors Sparking of electric wires & equipment Protection & prevention Types of fire 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani Fire & explosion hazards

16 Preventive measures Prohibition of smoking in manufacturing areas. Oxygen present in the inflammable atmosphere may be ↓by dilution with gases such as nitrogen, co 2,steam or combination of these. Hazardous operation should be isolated Eliminating the ignition sources Using fire resistant material in construction Suitable emergency exits Adequate venting 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani Fire & explosion hazards

17 Automatic sprinklers Equipment should design to meet the specifications & code of recognized authorities, such as ISA, API &ASME The design & construction of pressure vessels & storage tanks should follow API & ASME codes. Inspection 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani Fire & explosion hazards

18 Chemical Hazards Local – Dermatitis – Eczema – Ulcers – Cancer Inhalation – Gas Poisoning Ingestion Living tissue may be destroyed by chemical reactions such as Dehydration Digestion Oxidation 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

19 Source, effect & precautions of chemical hazards Type/ source of chemical contaminant Effect/ organ affected Precautions to be taken Acridines, phenothiazines DermatitisCleanliness, removal of people from the areas as soon as first sign of skin reaction is observed. Solvents like chloroform, benzene Handle with care Vegetable drugs like capsicum & podophyllum Dust evolves, affects eye Goggles are to be worn Long term use of filter without cleaning Dust explosionRegular cleaning 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

20 Source, effect & precautions of chemical hazards Improper use of cleaning agents contaminationFollow established cleaning procedures Working with radio pharmaceuticals Hazards due to emitted radiation Wearing lead coat, maintaining pressure of working area slightly less than atmospheric pressure Underground tanksDifficulty in monitoring interior & exterior Minimal use of underground tanks 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

21 Tolerance levels for toxic chemicals set by federal regulations have to be followed. Strict observation of operations of all safety regulations 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani PREVENTIVE MEASURES

22 Biological hazards Disease due to biological hazards  Brucellosis (dairy industry)  Byssinosis (textile industry)  Bagassosis (sugar-cane)  Loco motor disorder Preventive measures Periodic health check up Personal protection The manufacturer should also provide First aid facilities Initial examination Facility for vaccination Routine sanitation programme 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

23 Mechanical hazards Accidents usually take place by the combination of unsafe condition & carelessness. Most of industrial accidents are due to Faulty inspection Inability of employee Poor discipline Lack of concentration Unsafe practice Mental & physical unfitness for job Faulty equipment or improper working condition Improper training regarding the safety aspects 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

24 In order to prevent mechanical accidents factories act lay down certain requirements For cranes  End buffers  Indicating lamps  Signals Proof loading upto20 tons 25% in excess 20 to 50 tons 5 tons in excess above 50 tons 10% in excess 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani Mechanical hazards

25 Preventive measures Building planning 24 August 2012KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani25 Mechanical hazards

26  Building planning Floors must be of unskid/non-slippery type. Enough space for employees to work. Passages between working places. Proper arrangements of temperature control; like fans, A.C., heaters. 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

27 Preventive measures Building planning Safe material handling 24 August 2012KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani27  Building planning

28 Careless handling of heavy materials and components should be avoided. Full use of mechanical material handling equipment. All material handling equipments should be repaired and maintained properly. Containers employed to transport liquids should not be defective or leaking.  Safe material handling 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

29 Protection of head by using hard hats/helmets. Protection of ears by using earmufffs and plugs. Protection of face by using face marks, face shields.  Personal protective devices 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

30 Electrical hazards Shocks Sparking Fire Wiring faults Preventive measures  Proper maintenance of wiring & equipment  High voltage equipment should be properly enclosed  Good house keeping  Water should not be used for dousing electric fire  Worker should avoid working in electric circuits or equipment in wet clothing or shoes. 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

31 Pollution hazards Types a.Air pollution b.Water pollution c.Thermal pollution d.Sound pollution Air pollution Sources Automobiles Industries Domestic 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

32 i.Those suitable for removing particulate matter a.Ventilation  Exhaust ventilation  Plenum ventilation b.Air purifying equipment ii.Those associated with removing gaseous pollutants Water pollution 1.Types of water pollutants Physical Chemical Physiological Biological 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani Preventive measures

33 2.Problems of water pollution 3.Preventive measure a.Control of water pollution i.Physical treatment  Storage  Filtration ii.Chemical treatment iii.Biological treatment b.Treatment of industrial waste Primary treatment Secondary treatment Tertiary treatment 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani Preventive measures

34 c.Thermal pollution Effects Damage to aquatic environment Reduction in assimilative capacity of organic waste Various off stream cooling systems i.Wet cooling towers ii.Dry cooling towers iii.Cooling ponds iv.Spray ponds 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani Preventive measures

35 Recommendations & suggestions Proper treatment & disposal methods for effluents should be adopted An awareness program Measures for increase efficiency of the water use 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

36 Classification of signs according to use – (1) Danger signs. The DANGER header is used when there is a hazardous situation which has a high probability of death or severe injury. It should not be considered for property damage unless personal injury risk is present. 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

37 2) Caution signs. (i) The CAUTION header is used to indicate a hazardous situation which may result in minor or moderate injury. However, Caution should not be used when there is a possibility of death or serious injury. 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

38 (3) Safety instruction signs General Safety Signs (SAFETY FIRST, BE CAREFUL, THINK) should indicate general instructions relative to safe work practices, reminders of proper safety procedures, and the location of safety equipment. 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

39 (4) Biological hazard signs. The biological hazard warning shall be used to signify the actual or potential presence of a biohazard and to identify equipment, containers, rooms, materials, experimental animals, or combinations thereof, which contain, or are contaminated with, viable hazardous agents. 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

40 Pictograph Pictograph means a pictorial representation used to identify a hazardous condition or to convey a safety instruction 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

41 Signal Word Signal word means that portion of a tag's inscription that contains the word or words that are intended to capture the employee's immediate attention. 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

42 Tag Tag means a device usually made of card, paper, pasteboard, plastic or other material used to identify a hazardous condition. 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

43 Danger Tags Danger tags shall be used in major hazard situations where an immediate hazard presents a threat of death or serious injury to employees. Danger tags shall be used only in these situations. 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

44 Caution Tags Caution tags shall be used in minor hazard situations where a non-immediate or potential hazard or unsafe practice presents a lesser threat of employee injury. Caution tags shall be used only in these situations. 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

45 Warning Tags Warning tags may be used to represent a hazard level between "Caution" and "Danger," instead of the required "Caution" tag, provided that they have a signal word of "Warning," an appropriate major message 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

46 Biological Hazard Tags The symbol design for biological hazard tags shall conform to the design shown below: 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

47 Color Coding-Danger Tag "DANGER" -- Red, or predominantly red, with lettering or symbols in a contrasting color. 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

48 Color Coding-Caution Tag "CAUTION" -- Yellow, or predominantly yellow, with lettering or symbols in a contrasting color. 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

49 Color Coding-Warning Tag "WARNING" -- Orange, or predominantly orange, with lettering or symbols in a contrasting color. 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

50 Biological Hazard Tag BIOLOGICAL HAZARD -- Fluorescent orange or orange-red, or predominantly so, with lettering or symbols in a contrasting color. 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

51 Industrial effluent testing and treatment Effluent is an outflowing of water from a natural body of water, or from a man-made structure. Water pollution or waste water discharge from the industrial facilities. REASON OF TESTING To find out -Pollution load -Presence of toxic ingredients -Color, turbidity, odour and quality of water -pH and acidity / alkalinity -Suspended solids and dissolved solids -Phenolic compounds and oily materials 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

52 GUIDELINES FOR TESTING EFFLUENTS Samples may be collected at specific intervals and finally can be mixed before analysis. Containers made up of glass, polythene or any suitable plastic material may be used. Samples may also be refrigerated to avoid loss of volatile matter Samples could be preserved after adjusting the pH O 2, CO 2, CO may be estimated 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

53 Effluents may be expressed as mg/ltr, ppm, %/ltr, and mcg/ltr Acidity / Alkalinity / Oil / Grease / CN / Phenol / Dyes content should be reported TESTING OF WASTE WATER (EFFLUENT) TESTTREATMENT METHOD pH Acidic Basic Lime or NAOH H 2 SO 4 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani THE RESULTS OF TESTING ARE REPORTED AS FOLLOWS:

54 Suspended SolidsSedimentation Oil and grease-grease taps -skimming Cyanide Chlorinated & complex with pyridine pyroxolene -Colourimetrically -alkaline chlorination -oxidation with ozone -oxidation with H 2 O 2 Phosphates -Convert to ammonium molybdatephosphates -extracted with benzene/ isobutyl alcohol mixture -organic phase treated with tin chloride (blue) Colourimetrically -ppt with chalk or lime -coagulation with alum 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani THE RESULTS OF TESTING ARE REPORTED AS FOLLOWS:

55 Mercury -treated with nitric acid and potassium dichromate soln- treared with tin chloride Vapour determined by spectrophotometry -Coagulation -chelation with trimercaptotriazine Phenolic compounds Steam distillation-acidify (pH<4)- add CuSO 4 soln- Add aminoantipyrine soln- extracted with chloroform calorimetrically Removal by polymeric adsorbents 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani THE RESULTS OF TESTING ARE REPORTED AS FOLLOWS:

56 BIOLOGICAL OXYGEN DEMAND It is the amounts of oxygen required by micro organisms to bio chemically oxidize carbonaceous organic matter at 20 0 C in 5 days. 10 mg/litre or less Excess makes water toxic MEASUREMENT Special designed bottle with flared cap Incubated at 20 0 C for 5 day measuring DO Microorganism added if required 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

57 Dissol oxy in ppm (mg/ltr) = N(V) (8) (1000) V 1 V=Volume of sodium thio sulphate required. N=Normality V 1 =Volume of sample taken. CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND Oxygen equivalent of organic matter present in waste water that is susceptible to oxidation Waste water sample is refluxed with a known excess of pot. dichromate in a 50% sulphuric acid solution in presence of silver sulphate and mercuric sulphate 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

58 The organic matter of the sample is oxidised to water, carbon dioxide and ammonia The excess of dichromate remaining untreated in the solution is titrated against standard ferrous ammonium sulphate COD(mg/l) = (V 1 -V 2) x N x 8 x100 X Where, V 1 = Volume of ferrous ammonium sulphate solution consumed in blank V 2 = Volume of ferrous ammonium sulphate solution consumed for test solution X= Volume of sample taken N= Normality of ferrous ammonium sulphate solution 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND

59 Limit for Discharge into Systems Sr. No.ParametersTolerance limits 1pH5.5 – 9.0 2Oil and grease10 3Total suspended solid, mg/l100 4BOD, mg/l30 5COD, mg/l50 6Mercury0.01 7Arsenic, mg/l0.20 8Cyanide, mg/l0.10 9Sulphides, mg/l Phosphates, mg/l August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

60 Waste Water Treatment  Waste Water Pretreatment Attempted to render the effluent suitable for further treatment Equalization Concentrated waste is diluted if necessary -by mechanical mixing -by aeration mixing Neutralization Removal of Grease and Oils 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

61 Primary Treatment of Waste Water Removal of large floating or suspended particle by physical and chemical treatment  Screening Large particles are removed Coarse screen of metal bars or heavy wires spaced mm apart Finer materials are separated by screening through mm meshes  Grit Chambers Removal of particles by centrifugal action and friction against tank walls Diffused air used for mixing pattern 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

62 It is used To prevent any damage to equipment To avoid settling in pipe bends 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani Primary Treatment of Waste Water

63  Chemical Reaction Involves agglomeration of tiny particles into large particles  Flocculation -by mechanical stirring and by chemical flocculants  Precipitation -Large amount of suspended solid formed  Coagulation -Formation of large and quick settling flocs by a) Reduction of charges and repulsive force b) Adsorption on long chain molecular structure 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani Primary Treatment of Waste Water

64 Secondary Treatment of Waste Water It is a biological process C, H, and O sources are available Nitrogen should be 5% of the BOD Phosphorus should be 20% of mass of nitrogen Environmental conditions are provided Advantages Continuous waste treatment is favored Low cost system Disadvantages Prior prediction of biological degradability is not possible Solubility limits biodegradability 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

65  Activated Sludge Process Microbial Floc is suspended in tank Air is continuously supplied Biological degradation of waste into CO 2 and H 2 O Bacterial flora grows and remains suspended in the form of floc called as “activated sludge” 20% of sludge is recycled 6 to 24 hours aeration is required 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani Secondary Treatment of Waste Water

66 Advantages -Removal of soluble organic substance, colloidal matter, particulate matter, inorganic substance -Produce high quality effluent Disadvantage -Maintenance cost is high -Growth of anaerobic bacteria fungi etc 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani Secondary Treatment of Waste Water

67 Activated Sludge Process 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

68 Microorganisms are attached to fixed bed It acts as a filter Bed is maintained at height of 2.5 meter Gelatinous film is formed Effluent is sprayed over the surface Slots at the bottom for air inlet Aerobic metabolism occur on the surface Anaerobic metabolism occur at the bottom 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani Trickling filtration process

69 Trickling Filtration Process 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

70 Advantages Produce effluent of consistent quality Aerobic and anaerobic digestion are achieved More economical Sludge can be removed quickly Disadvantage Cost for ventilation duct for air supply is high Efficiency decreases in the winter 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani Trickling Filtration Process

71  Oxidation Ponds Depth should be 1 to 2 meters. Bottom and sides are lined with polyethylene, cement. Oxygen released by algae, carbon dioxide generate from biodegradative Aerobic oxidation producing carbon dioxide and water. Advantage: Operation is simple and economical. Disadvantages: Required disinfections Use for wastes having low BOD. 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani Secondary Treatment of Waste Water

72 Tertiary Treatment Of Waste Water Meant for polishing the effluents. Bacteria are removed by keeping in maturation ponds. Chlorinated, if still contain bacteria. Methods are more expensive than biological treatment.  Coagulation : Reaction take place upon addition of the coagulants. -Metal salts -Organic Polymers In water, form insoluble product with impurities. 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

73  Coprecipitation : Ions in solution phase precipitate with the carrier molecule by -Adsorption Process -Inclusion Process  Filtration Most common type in addition to disinfection. Practiced prior to the chlorination. Should be done after coagulation. May be made up of sand, activated charcoal. 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani Tertiary Treatment Of Waste Water

74  Adsorption Involves treatment with activated carbon. Useful for removal of pesticides 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani Tertiary Treatment Of Waste Water

75 REFRENCES Pharmaceutical Production and Management By C. V. S. Subrahmanyam Sewage and Industrial Effluent Treatment, 2 nd edition By John Arundel The Theory & Practical of Industrial Pharmacy By Leon Lachman, Herbert A. Lieberman, Joseph Kiang, 3 RD Edition Varghese Publishing House. 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani

76 THANK YOU 24 August KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani Cell No:


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