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Measuring a Nation’s Income n The Economy’s Income & Expenditure n The Measurement of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) n The Components of GDP n Real versus.

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Presentation on theme: "Measuring a Nation’s Income n The Economy’s Income & Expenditure n The Measurement of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) n The Components of GDP n Real versus."— Presentation transcript:

1 Measuring a Nation’s Income n The Economy’s Income & Expenditure n The Measurement of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) n The Components of GDP n Real versus Nominal GDP n GDP and Economic Well-Being

2 The Economy’s Income & Expenditure  GDP measures two things simultaneously: total income in the economy and total expenditure in the economy  Recall that circular flow illustrates value of output = expenditures = income

3 The Economy’s Income & Expenditure  Leakage: Income earned, but not spent on goods and services  Injection: Expenditures on goods and services that do not come from household sector

4 The Economy’s Income & Expenditure  In spite of leakages and injections, every transaction has a buyer and seller, so income and expenditure will always be equal  This means we can measure GDP by adding up all expenditures in the economy or by adding up all incomes in the economy

5 The Measurement of Gross Domestic Product  GDP is the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given time period

6 The Measurement of Gross Domestic Product n “Market value” implies we will be using prices as the value of goods and services n GDP tries to includes all final goods and services produced –Ignores household production –Ignores underground economy –Intermediate goods are excluded

7 The Measurement of Gross Domestic Product n GDP includes final goods –Intermediate goods are excluded in order to avoid double counting

8 The Measurement of Gross Domestic Product Money Value Farmer grows wheat & sells to miller Miller mills wheat & sells to baker Baker converts to bread & sells to store Store sells bread to consumer TOTALS

9 The Measurement of Gross Domestic Product n GDP includes goods produced in the current time period –Used goods are excluded n GDP measures the value of output produced within a nation –This is different from GNP which measures the value of output produced by a nation’s current residents

10 The Components of GDP n GDP can be divided into various components –Consumption –Investment –Government purchases –Net exports

11 The Components of GDP  Consumption is spending by households on goods and services with the exception of new housing  Largest component  Investment is spending on capital equipment, inventories, and structures, including household purchases of new housing  Least stable component

12 The Components of GDP  Government purchases is spending on goods and services by state, local, and federal government  Excludes transfer payments  Net exports is spending on domestically produced goods by foreigners (exports) minus spending on foreign goods by domestic residents (imports)

13 The Components of GDP  GDP can be expressed as: Y = C + I + G + NX n This equation is an identity - true by definition

14 Real versus Nominal GDP  A change in GDP does not mean that there has been a change in the level of output  GDP is P x Q  GDP can change because of a change in price, a change in quantity, or a change in both

15 Real versus Nominal GDP  Distinguish between nominal and real GDP  Nominal GDP is output valued in current dollars or current prices  Can change because of a change in output or a change in prices

16 Real versus Nominal GDP  Real GDP is output valued in constant dollars or constant prices (prices of some base period)  Can change only because of a change in output (we are essentially holding prices constant)

17 Real versus Nominal GDP Year P of Pizza Q of Pizza P of Coke Q of Coke 1999 $1 100 $ $ $ Nom GDP 1999 = (1.00 X 100) + (.5 X 50) = Nom GDP 2000 = (1.50 X 175) + (.6 X 75) = Real GDP 1999 = (1.00 X 100) + (.5 x 50) = Real GDP 2000 = (1.00 X 175) + (.5 X 75) =

18 Real versus Nominal GDP  The GDP deflator is a measure of the price level  It measures the current level of prices relative to the base year level of prices  The GDP deflator is calculated as the ratio of nominal GDP to real GDP multiplied by 100  The deflator for the base year will always be 100

19 Real versus Nominal GDP  The deflator can be use to examine price changes that have occurred since the base year  A GDP deflator of means prices are 6.7% higher than in base period

20 Real versus Nominal GDP  The GDP deflator can be used to calculate changes in prices over some period of time other than the base  Current deflator - Old deflator X 100 Old deflator

21 Real versus Nominal GDP n Example n Price index 1995 = 120 n Price index 1999 = 135 n Change in price is: X

22 Real versus Nominal GDP 15 X =.125 X 100 = 12.5 percent change in prices

23 GDP and Economic Well-Being  GDP is an indicator of economic well- being  Should be aware that it is a flawed indicator  Does not include leisure, quality of the environment, types of goods we produce, value of goods that are produced outside markets, etc.

24 GDP and Economic Well-Being n (Gross domestic product) does not allow for the health of our children, the quality of their education, or the joy of their play. It does not include the beauty of our poetry or the strength of our marriages, the intelligence of our public debate or the integrity of our public officials. It measures neither our courage, nor our wisdom, nor our devotion to our country. It measures everything, in short, except that which makes life worthwhile, and it can tell us everything about America except why we are proud to be Americans Robert Kennedy


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