2CAPS requirements The open economy circular flow model The markets National account aggregates and conversionsThe multiplier:Definition of multiplier effectExplanation of the multiplier process aided with a circular flow and examples
4Households: owners of the factors of production. Households offer FOP to firmsFirms use FOP to produce goods and servicesHouseholds receive income(rent, wages and salaries, interest and profit.) from firms in exchange for FOP.Households use this income to buys goods and services in the goods market.
5Firms: use factors of production to produce good & services Firms buy FOP’s from households in exchange for income (rent, wages and salaries, interest & profit).
6Government: national, provincial and local Gov Government: national, provincial and local Gov. supplies goods/services to households and also taxes households and firms. Foreign sector: countries in the rest of the world. Important for imports and exports
8Factor market Goods market Financial market HOUSEHOLDS (FOP) FIRMS (income)(land, labour, capital, ent.) (salaries and wages, interest, rent, profits)Goods marketFirms sell goods/services to households, other firms and the foreign sector.Financial marketMoney and capital markets.Surplus funds deposited & loans are made in the financial market.
9Real flows – flows of physical things. Money flows – aka nominal flows consist of the flow of money.
10Leakages: factors that cause a decline in the flow of spending, income and production. Savings (S), taxes (T) & imports (M).Decreases the flow of money and the total spending in the economy.Injections: factors that cause an increase in the flow of spending, income and production.Investment (I), government spending (G) & exports (X).
12Spending, production and income flows Spending on goods and services (TS) = what is being produced (TP) = what is paid out as income (TI) to FOP used in production.SPENDING FLOWTotal spending undertaken by households (consumption) and firms (investment).TS = C + IPRODUCTION FLOWConsists of consumer goods/services and capital goods.INCOME FLOWRent, wages/salaries, interest and profits to households from firms.
13S is a leakage I is an injection The total spending in the model is equal to: TS = C + I = = 1 000TS = TP = TIY = 1 000S is a leakage I is an injectionEquilibrium since S = IC = 800 Y = 1 000S = Y – C = – 800 = 200
15From this three-sector circular flow we can see that… Demand for goods/services in our economy consists of C + I + GFlows of spending, production and income are equal.2 leakages: savings (S) and taxation (T).2 injections: investment spending (I) and government spending (G).In equilibrium leakages = injections (S + T = I + G)
16Equilibrium since S + T = I + G Total injectionsI + G = = 300Total leakagesS + T = = 300S = Yd – C = – 900 = 250TS = C + I + G = = 1 200TS = TP = TIY = 1200Yd = Y – T = – 50 = 1 150
18From this four-sector circular flow we can see that… Demand for goods/services in our economy consists of C + I + G + (X – M)Flows of spending, production and income are equal.3 leakages: savings (S) and taxation (T) and imports (M).3 injections: investment spending (I) and government spending (G) and exports (X).In equilibrium leakages = injections(S + T + M = I + G + X)
19TS = C + I + G + (X – M) = 850 + 200 + 100 + (100 – 120) = 1 130 TS = TP = TIY = 1 130Injections = I + G + X= = 400Leakages = S + T + M= = 400Yd = Y – T= – 50 = 1 080S = Yd – C= – 850 = 230
21National account aggregates and conversions National accounts: accounting records of a country’s total production, income and expenditure.Calculated by using the circular flow model.3 methods of calculating GDP…production method – gross domestic product GDP(P) or GDPincome method – gross domestic income GDP(I) or GDIexpenditure method – gross domestic expenditure GDP(E) or GDE
22Production method: Gross domestic product (GDP) Gross domestic product (GDP): total value of final goods and services produced within the country in a given period.
23What is the total value added of these four transactions? A farmer produces 1000 bags of wheat which he sells to a miller at R10 per bag, yielding a total of RThe miller processes the wheat into flour, which he then sells to a baker for RAfter baking bread with the flour, the baker sells it to a shop for RThe shop subsequently sells the bread to final consumers for R21 000.
25Must differentiate between final and intermediate goods – avoids double counting.
26Expenditure method: Gross domestic expenditure (GDE) Gross domestic expenditure (GDE): total value of spending on final goods and services within the borders of a country.GDE = C + I + G
27Income method: Gross domestic income (GDI) Gross domestic income (GDI): measures income earned by the FOP in the production of the GDP of a country. GDI measures income of all the people (citizens and foreigners) within the borders of a country. GNI measures income of all SA citizens even outside the borders of SA.
28Factor Prices (cost), Basic Prices and Market Prices
29Factor prices to basic prices Used when GDP is calculated according to factor cost. Differs from production approach because of taxes and subsidies on production not reflected in the factor prices. Solution… ADD taxes on production SUBTRACT subsidies on production = BASIC PRICES
30Basic prices to market prices Used when the GDP is calculated according to the production approach. Basic price differs from market price due to tax/subsidy on the product. Tax on products cause market price > basic price. Subsidies on products cause basic price > market price. Solution… ADD taxes on product SUBTRACT subsidies = MARKET PRICES
31Factor Prices (cost), Basic Prices and Market Prices
33Do all methods give the same answer? Farmer to miller for R50Miller to Baker for R100Baker to Consumer for R150Expenditure method = R150Value of final outputProduction (value added method) = R50 + R50 + R50 = R150Income method = = R50 + R50 + R50 = R150Value added = income earned by FOP
38The multiplier in the circular flow model 6. Final increase in total spending, production and income =R2 962(R R R R512)2. Total productionincreases by R1 000 → increase R1 000 in income.The multiplier in the circular flow model1. R1000 investment (buy capital goods from local firm)5. Increase in C of R640 (80% × R800 ).Further increase in production and income of R640.4. Firms increase production by R800.More FOP employed – household income increases by R800.8.Multiplier = 11 – 0,8 = 53. Households save 20% (marginal propensity to save)Spend 80% (marginal propensity to consume)
39What is the marginal propensity to save in each scenario, and what is its effect?
40Aggregate Expenditure Model In equilibrium (E); C + I = YI.e. Amount spent by households (C) & Firms (I) = income earned by households (Y)Aggregate Expenditure ModelTwo sector economy: AE = C + IAE = YIncome (Y)
41When AE < Y inventories accumulate When AE > Y inventories fall Y Y Y1
42Example: I increases by R5 mill MPC = 0.75 ∴multiplier = 4 Y increases by R20 millMPC = 0.75 ∴ multiplier = 4
43MPC = 0.75 What is the new level of Y? ANSWER = 120Y
44What is the multiplier? What is the MPS? Multiplier = 10 MPS = 0,1What is the multiplier? What is the MPS?
45MPS =0.2 How much did AE go up by? AE increased 4MPS =0.2 How much did AE go up by?