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Don’t Get Left Out in the Cold: How to Navigate Judy Ackerman, VP and Provost, Montgomery College Linda Braddy, Deputy Executive Director, MAA Joanne Peeples,

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Presentation on theme: "Don’t Get Left Out in the Cold: How to Navigate Judy Ackerman, VP and Provost, Montgomery College Linda Braddy, Deputy Executive Director, MAA Joanne Peeples,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Don’t Get Left Out in the Cold: How to Navigate Judy Ackerman, VP and Provost, Montgomery College Linda Braddy, Deputy Executive Director, MAA Joanne Peeples, Mathematics Professor, EPCC

2 At the Grace Hopper Celebration: Maria Klawe (President of Harvey Mudd College) interviewed Satya Nadella (CEO of Microsoft)

3 The following is a quote by Nadella – “It’s not really about asking for the raise, but knowing and having faith that the system will actually give you the right raises as you go along. And that, I think, might be one of the additional superpowers that, quite frankly, women who don’t ask for a raise have because that’s good karma. It’ll come back because someone’s going to know that’s the kind of person that I want to trust. …”

4 This panel wants to address raises and other perks – not just for women, but for anyone looking for a job. Linda will give us some background. Judy has two case studies to consider.

5 Negotiation

6 The case for WHY From Women Don’t Ask: Negotiation and the Gender Divide by Linda Babcock and Sara Laschever (2003, Princeton University Press) “Women are much less likely to use negotiation to get what they want.” “(Negotiation) has long be thought to be the province of men; a competitive realm in which men excelled and women felt less capable. But ideas about what make a successful negotiation have changed in recent years.”

7 The case for WHY From Women Don’t Ask: Negotiation and the Gender Divide by Linda Babcock and Sara Laschever (2003, Princeton University Press) “This change in attitudes makes negotiation more attractive to women, because many women have disliked the competitive nature of much negation. In addition, people often react negatively to women behaving in competitive ways, making negotiation a less effective strategy for women to get what they want.”

8 The case for WHY From Women Don’t Ask: Negotiation and the Gender Divide by Linda Babcock and Sara Laschever (2003, Princeton University Press) “Why do women need to negotiate now more than before- and why is it good news that women can begin to discover their strength as negotiators?” “Changes in the workplace culture are making it essential for women to exercise far more control over their careers than in the past…negotiation is no longer optional. It’s become a basic survival skill.”

9 The case for WHY The need to negotiate certainly extends beyond the single issue of salary negotiations. But we shouldn’t underestimate the importance of a one-time negotiation of starting salary. 22 years old, equally qualified woman and man each offered $25K Woman accepts $25K, man negotiates to $30K At 60, with 3% annual raise, the salary gap is $15K ($92K vs. $77K) At 60, with 38 years at 3% interest, the man has over half a million more than the woman (almost $600K) in the bank Starting salary goes a long way in accounting for the wage gap.

10 Background & context

11 Men are from Mars, women are from Venus Personal example: Jr high boys vs. Jr high girls Personal example: Conversations about new job opportunities, starting salaries, negotiations Gender norms, societal expectations influence our behavior I have two goals: To counter implicit gender bias by shedding light on it and raising awareness of its existence – awareness among both women and men. Highlight information for you that is immediately applicable.

12 Background & context Some studies cited are actual controlled experiments, some are data from actual starting salaries, some are case studies (interviews). The author’s research was funded by NSF and other “prestigious” sources, e.g., Heinz Fnd – Carnegie Melon University (CMU)

13 My approach I will only discuss research and claims that seem to have some solid data and design backing them up. I will not discuss claims about emerging issues that are still controversial and for which there is currently no consensus in the field.

14 My perspective I am not saying women need to be fixed. I am saying that society can (must) change, that workplace culture can (must) change, and it starts with us. Women can learn to recognize more opportunities for negotiation and find effective ways to negotiate (as women). People can accept women who ask and stop taking a harder line when negotiating with women. Men in positions of power can commit to mentoring talented women

15 My perspective I am not saying women need to be fixed. I am saying that society can (must) change, that workplace culture can (must) change, and it starts with us. Women can learn to recognize more opportunities for negotiation and find effective ways to negotiate (as women). People can accept women who ask and stop taking a harder line when negotiating with women. Men in positions of power can commit to mentoring talented women “Must change” – Costs to society

16 My perspective “Must change” – Costs to society Bad for women’s health (stress, depression, downward spiral) Paying women less = inadequate funding for social security benefits, disability and unemployment benefits, pensions (all tied to salary) American women over 65 are twice as likely to be poor as men. Economic costs to support them. Wasted talent Stale perspective (women bring fresh approach, ask if there are better ways to do things)

17 My perspective “Must change” – Costs to society Stale perspective (women bring fresh approach, ask if there are better ways to do things) President Bush appointed Bernadine Healy to head NIH in 1991.

18 My perspective “Must change” – Costs to society Stale perspective (women bring fresh approach, ask if there are better ways to do things) President Bush appointed Bernadine Healy to head NIH in Women were excluded from studies of disease (clouded the results). It wasn’t that these men wanted women to receive inappropriate treatment, but they had different priorities and perspectives.

19 My perspective “Must change” – Costs to society Stale perspective (women bring fresh approach, ask if there are better ways to do things) President Bush appointed Bernadine Healy to head NIH in Women were excluded from studies of disease (clouded the results). It wasn’t that these men wanted women to receive inappropriate treatment, but they had different priorities and perspectives. Healy created Women’s Health Initiative (against strong opposition). Women have to be included in students that affect both genders. Hormone replacement therapy recognized as increasing the risk of cancer, hear attacks, and strokes.

20 Research findings Author’s study of starting salaries of students graduating from CMU with master’s degrees The men’s were almost $4,000 (7.6%) higher than the women’s 7% of the women had negotiated, but 57% of the men had (8 x as many) Especially surprising given that graduating students are strongly advised by CMU’s Career Services dept to negotiate job offers Those who negotiated increased their starting salaries by $4,053 (7.4%), almost exactly the difference in men’s and women’s starting pay.

21 Research findings Author’s study (controlled experiment) to examine propensity of men and women to ask for more than they are offered 4 rounds of Boggle, “Here’s $3, is $3 ok?” If they asked, they got $10.

22 Research findings Author’s study (controlled experiment) to examine propensity of men and women to ask for more than they are offered 4 rounds of Boggle, “Here’s $3, is $3 ok?” If they asked, they got $10. Almost 9 times as many male as females asked for more money.

23 Research findings Author’s study (internet survey) about respondents most recent negotiations attempted and the next one planned Men ask for things they want and initiate negotiations 4 times as often as women.

24 Research findings Authors’ case studies (interviews) for this book with men and women from a range of professions and from the US, Britain, and Europe. Affirmed previous findings. Indicate the tendency among women to “not ask” is NOT a Baby Boomer generation problem. For 20- and 30-somethings, the gender differences were even larger. Women even avoid negotiating in situations where they know it’s appropriate and expected (like the CMU students in the starting salaries study – they were encouraged to negotiate)

25 Why don’t we ask? We don’t know we can ask (we don’t recognize opportunities). We expect less (and thus, aren’t disappointed when we get less) because we undervalue our work. Even if we do gather info on market value, we compare ourselves to the wrong people (other women). And even if we negotiate, we make more modest first offers and we concede too much too soon (give up too soon). We fear asking will damage the relationship (relationships play a more central role in the lives of women than men)

26 Why don’t we ask? We fear we will be seen as pushy or difficult. We are less comfortable than men with risk taking (asking). We lack confidence in our negotiating ability. We expect that our hard work will be recognized and fairly rewarded (we will be given what we deserve).

27 What can we do? Telling women they should ask isn’t typically enough to help them change. We can help women learn to reframe their interactions with others and overcome their low sense of entitlement, fear, or caution. Help them (learn to) research and set aggressive yet obtainable goals. Teach them “self-management” techniques (in the author’s study, changing women’s feelings of control over the negotiation process this way completely eliminate the gender gap in performance).

28 Self-management techniques Articulate the barriers and challenges you face in obtaining what you want (obstacles that cause you anxiety or stress). Identify which of these are real and which are imagined. Develop strategies to deal with anxiety-producing situations. Practice responses with a partner to build self confidence.

29 Self-management techniques Set performance goals by: Evaluating all potential outcomes. Ranking priorities. Identifying giveaways. Setting target. Setting reserve (minimum acceptable). The emphasis is on increasing the feeling of control over the negotiation process.

30 Women are better at… Advocating for others. Using a cooperative approach rather than a competitive approach. Competitive tactics: staking out extreme positions, bluffing, resisting concessions. Interactive (cooperative) tactics: asking questions, listening, sharing information, trying to find solutions that satisfy the needs of both sides. Coming to an agreement. Negotiating results that provide acceptable outcomes for all parties.

31 Case studies

32 Darcy lives in a mid-size city and earns nearly $30,000 a year from full-time work in sales and from part-time teaching mathematics at two different community colleges. She has been an adjunct professor for seven years. A single mother, she also volunteers as a math tutor twice a week for her son’s elementary school. Darcy

33 In late June she was offered a teaching appointment beginning in August at Function College, a multi- campus community college, in another state 325 miles away. The offer was for $38,300, with excellent health benefits, but did not include moving expenses. Through the grapevine she found out that the average starting salary at this institution for someone just out of graduate school was $43,500. Further, it was clear to Darcy during her interview with the dean, chair, and faculty that her participation on departmental committees, student advising, and professional development with occasional travel, were expected.

34 If you were Darcy : would you just accept the job and say thank you? would you ask for additional salary, moving expenses or other compensation? what non salary requests would you consider making prior to accepting the position? what help would you request so that you could make the greatest positive impact as a first-year, full-time mathematics professor?

35 Would your questions and answers be different from those of Darcy if you were Daniel, a single dad?

36 Roberto, an outstanding professor of mathematics for 19 years, has taught mostly developmental mathematics courses in a special learning community program that he designed at his large community college. The highly acclaimed program has been replicated in four other community colleges, and Roberto’s yeoman efforts secured a major grant that boosted enrollment and made his institution a national model for closing the achievement gap in math for minority students. Roberto

37 As the program matures, Roberto finds himself in administrative meetings more than in classrooms and labs. His friend and mentor, a STEM dean at a nearby college, urged Roberto to consider applying for an open dean position at Roberto’s college. Roberto is clearly qualified with a Ph.D. in Mathematics, five years of experience as department chair, fluent in three languages, and experience as a regular presenter at major conferences.

38 Roberto never really thought about going into administration which his colleagues referred to as “the dark side.” He has been very comfortable with a nine- month teaching schedule, leisurely summers, and with being a tenured faculty member at an institution that did away with tenure 15 years ago. He was able to support his family on his nine month salary of $82,000.

39 If you were Roberto and were offered the job as dean: what would be your expectations regarding an acceptable salary as dean? what would you do if that was not the salary that was offered? would you expect to retain your tenure as a mathematics faculty member? would you be concerned about the lack of tenure that administrators have? what non salary requests would you consider making prior to accepting the position? what help would you request so that you could be an effective dean?

40 Would your expectations and answers be different from those of Roberto if you were Roberta?

41 Thank You!!!! Judy Ackerman: Linda Braddy: Joanne Peeples:


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