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What is Autism Spectrum Disorder? Putting the pieces of the puzzle together Lee Casuscelli 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "What is Autism Spectrum Disorder? Putting the pieces of the puzzle together Lee Casuscelli 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 What is Autism Spectrum Disorder? Putting the pieces of the puzzle together Lee Casuscelli 2010

2 Positive Partnerships Website Teacher training component -Certificate – 4 days FTF. Parent/carer component – 2 days FTF Online training, resources, discussion board, fact sheets.

3 What do we already know? What do you see in your student’s with an ASD?

4 A Spectrum Autism is a complex developmental disability characterised as a pervasive developmental disorder. Childhood Disintegrative Disorder Pervasive Developmental Disorders Rett Syndrome Autism Spectrum Disorders Autistic Disorder PDD.NOS Asperger Syndrome Autism affects a person’s ability to communicate, form relationships with others and respond appropriately to the environment in varying degrees.

5 What is Autism Spectrum Disorder? Triad of Impairments: Communication Social Repetitive / Restricted Behaviours Diagnosis - DSM1V Prevalence Future

6 non-verbal The Diversity of Autism SOCIAL INTERACTION SENSORY I.Q COMMUNICATION SEVERESEVERE gifted aloof verbal hyposensitivehypersensitive passive Repetitive behaviour Restricted interest severe active/odd Learning styles mildmoderate Social Interaction Communication Sensory Intellectual Ability (IQ) Learning Style strong visual spatial skills; visual learner; kinaesthetic; gestalt learner; poor executive functioning; detail-focused mildmarked average

7 Key Characteristics Communication Social Repetitive Behaviours and Restricted Interests Sensory Information Processing

8 CommunicationSocialRI/RBSensoryInformation processing Characteristics Implications Strategies Planning around the Key Characteristics Planning matrix

9 Communication All types of interactions where a message is sent or received Main hurdle is around the social purpose of language – pragmatics Need an interpreter Diagnostic Criteria: Delayed speech development (autism and HFA, not Aspergers) Impairment in expressive language Impairment in receptive language or comprehension skills Use of rote learnt phrases – echolalia Unusual vocal quality Difficulty initiating communicative interactions - conversations Differences in eye gaze, body language and use of gesture What do you see in your students?

10 Social Core feature of ASD Significantly impacts on friendships – fewer friends, prefer company of older or younger children More vulnerable to bullying – 4 times more at risk than the non ASD population Higher rates of depression and anxiety Diagnostic Criteria: Impairment in non verbal communication Failure to develop peer relationships Lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment What do you see in your students?

11 Repetitive Behaviours and Restricted Interests Difficulty coping with change and unfamiliar situations Difficulty regulating obsessions and behaviour Difficulty responding to traditional behaviour management Need for sameness Chunk Learning Style Diagnostic Criteria: Abnormally intense preoccupation with a pattern of interests Stereotyped or repetitive motor mannerisms Adherence to routines or rituals What do you see in your students?

12 Sensory Sensory processing is the ability to organise and interpret information receive by the 5 far senses and the 2 near senses Two broad categories – over sensitive and under sensitive – hypo / hyper Difficulty accurately recognising, integrating and processing sensory information Auditory (fear of loud noises) Visual (watching spinning objects) Tactile (aversion to touch) Gustatory (craving for strong tastes) Olfactory (avoidance of smells) Proprioception ( deep pressure – massage) Vestibular (love of jumping or spinning) Diagnostic Criteria: Not currently part of the diagnostic criteria Regularly reported as an area of need What do you see in your students?

13 Information Processing Weak Central Coherence – focusing on small details rather than the big picture Executive Functioning – problem solving Difficulties with: Planning and organising Concrete and literal thinking Attention – maintaining, shifting and switching Thinking of different options Generalising Understanding social situations What do you see in your students?

14 And now? Refer to the list created at the start of this session. Would you change anything? Would you add anything? Would you remove anything? Would you re word anything?

15 What works? Teach communication skills in natural settings Allow time for communication Provide alternative means of communication- signing, picture exchange Use visual communication – teach use and introduce systematically Use short sentences Speak calmly and allow extra time for processing PBS – manage the antecedents, make environmental changes, teach replacement behaviours. Positive. Sensory profiling Adapt the environment Use social scripts, comic strip conversations, power cards Buddy for support Utilise strengths and interests Modify / adjust or adapt curriculum WORK together = collaboration = community of practice

16 Individual Perspective DVD

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