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IT and the Design of Work zDefine telecommuting, electronic immigration, outsourcing zDescribe the demand for IT workers and how employers are meeting.

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Presentation on theme: "IT and the Design of Work zDefine telecommuting, electronic immigration, outsourcing zDescribe the demand for IT workers and how employers are meeting."— Presentation transcript:

1 IT and the Design of Work zDefine telecommuting, electronic immigration, outsourcing zDescribe the demand for IT workers and how employers are meeting the demand zDescribe what is meant by virtual workers and discuss the reasons for hiring them zCompare supervision and evaluation using traditional and newer approaches zDiscuss the benefits, disadvantages, and issues related to telecommuting zDescribe the productivity paradox

2 Job Design Framework zWhat tasks will be performed? zHow will the work be performed? zWho will do the work? zWhere will the work be performed? zHow can information systems increase performance, satisfaction and effectiveness of the workers doing the work?

3 What tasks will be performed? zIT changes the way work is performed zIT changes communication patterns of workers zIT changes the type of information available zThe Internet changes many jobs zWork is more team oriented zInformating vs. automating?

4 How will the work be performed? or

5 Has IT resulted in more or less jobs overall?

6 U.S. Dept of Commerce, 1998 A Growing Demand for IT Workers zEmerging technologies zNew applications zGlobal growth zWWW zY2K

7 U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 11/95 Projected Growth of IT Professionals

8 U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 11/95 Breakdown of IT Workers 2005

9 The Numbers Don’t Add Up! zNeeded: 2.2 million in 2005, an average of 95,000 systems analysts, computer programmers and computer engineers per year per year zProduced by Information Systems and Computer Science Programs in 1994: 24,553 zLimits on H-1B non-immigrants: 115,000 professional workers per year starting Oct.1 (may be exhausted by Jan 2001) zLimits on H-1B visa raised to 200,000? zGrowing global shortage

10 Issues Related to IS Personnel zStaffing zTraining zSupervising zEvaluating zMotivating zRetaining

11 Staffing: Who will do the work? zCollege recruiting of IS/CS majors zRaiding other companies zHiring from other disciplines zBeefed up training programs ymainframers, older workers zEnd-user computing zOutsourcing

12 Outsourcing zPurchase of a good or service that was previously provided internally zVarying types and extent ytelecommunications ysoftware development yoperations y“the whole ball game”

13 Outsourcing Options zForeign outsourcing: electronic immigration yIndia, Russia, Eastern Europe, South Africa, Ireland, East Asia yIndia - 200,00 programmers yOutsourced software accounted for 41 percent of India’s software exports zOutsourcing companies zTemporary/Virtual workers

14 Temporary Workers: Types zRegularly scheduled part-time employees ykept on payroll or on file yhired intermittently or for short periods ylargest segment of temporary workforce zVirtual workers: Workers who aren’t employees of organization

15 Virtual Workers zConsultants or self-employed professionals zTemporary help service firms yUnskilled labor yHighly skilled professionals

16 Reasons for Hiring Virtual Workers zProvide specific technical skills on temporary basis zAllow workforce expansion during peak periods zCut costs (no benefits)

17 Supervising/Evaluating

18 Motivating/Retaining zRewards: Salaries, Benefits and Perks yExtrinsic vs. intrinsic yRewarding desired performance xperformance metrics must be meaningful xharder to define when based on broader view of work z Equity yinside and out IT organization

19 DxR zWhat is DxR’s approach to staffing? to training? to supervising and evaluating? to motivating and retaining?

20 Telecommuting: Where will work be performed? zDefinition zBenefits zCosts zKey Technologies zManagerial Issues zOther Issues

21 Telecommuting - What is it? zWorking from a home-based or remote office during normal business hours one (?) or more days a week yHow many days before you are a telecommuter? yDo you need a computer to be a telecommuter? zTypes: home-based, local telework center zMore than 20 million Americans telecommuted in 1998

22 Why Telecommuting? An Employee’s Perspective zBetter balance of work and personal life zIncreased schedule flexibility zReduced stress zSaves commuting time zGreater geographic flexibility zSaves gas and transportation costs (also societal)

23 Why Telecommuting? The Company’s Perspective zIncreases productivity and morale (10- 50%) zDemonstrates care, trust and empowerment zComplies with Clean Air Act zReduces offices space and associated costs (25-75%) zReduces recruitment and turnover costs (20-40%) zCan be utilized during disaster recovery

24 Tab for Telecommuting zSupport: $500 one-time fee, $347 annual costs zNetwork: $203 one-time fee, $1,282 annual costs zHome equipment: $3,522 one-time fee, $494 annual costs zCorporate setup: $237 one-time fee, $35 annual costs zTotal: $4,462 one-time fee, $2,158 annual costs –Source: Computerworld, 4/8/96. 100

25 Telecommuting Managerial Issues zPlanning zOrganizing zStaffing zDirecting zControlling

26 Telecommuting - Planning zCosts (who pays): yowning & maintaining hardware yinsurance premiums ypossible zoning issues zPilot program zSupervisor training zSelecting qualified employees yself-starters, self-disciplined, flexible ydisabled; working mothers ycertain jobs

27 Telecommuting - Directing zMorale of telecommuters zMorale of those left behind zNeed for coordination yschedules yplanned meetings

28 Telecommuting - Staffing zExempt or nonexempt (overtime) zDisabled employee considerations zIndependent contractor vs. full-time permanent employee zWorker’s compensation payments

29 Telecommuting - Control zMonitoring employee activities y(reported productivity increases) ychallenges managers (feel they are losing control) zSecurity of data ypassword authentication ydedicated leased lines yphysically securing equipment yfirewalls

30 Telecommuting - Other Issues zPersonal ydual career families working out of home yPerceptions about peace and quiet, value of work zFamily y55% of all mothers with children less than 3 years old now work (US DoC, 1989) ycomputer addicts zPsychological - stress of taking work home and keeping up

31 Why the Benefits of IT are Not Achieved? zLack of knowledge about IT and IT management zIncompatible hardware and software zInefficiencies in work processes zIncompatible organizational cultures and climates zContinual need to upgrade IT Productivity Paradox

32 IS Productivity Paradox zOver $1 trillion dollars spent on computer and communication technologies since 1980 zSystematic relationship to financial performance? zPeople make the difference zMeasures may be flawed yservice workers ylonger hours

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