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Jeff Cherry, Clear Creek High School 2008 1 Suicide and Russia Looking at a cloudy future.

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1 Jeff Cherry, Clear Creek High School 2008 1 Suicide and Russia Looking at a cloudy future

2 2 Jeff Cherry, Clear Creek High School 2008 The Dark Facts 58,000 Russians commit suicide each year (34.3 per 100,000). 58,000 Russians commit suicide each year (34.3 per 100,000). Russia ranks 3 rd globally to former Soviet republics Lithuania and Belarus in suicide rates. Russia ranks 3 rd globally to former Soviet republics Lithuania and Belarus in suicide rates. Suicide is the # 2 cause of death in Russia behind heart disease. Suicide is the # 2 cause of death in Russia behind heart disease.

3 3 Jeff Cherry, Clear Creek High School 2008

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6 6 Basic Demographics Largest group of suicide victims in Russia: Largest group of suicide victims in Russia: Males ages 45-54 Males ages 45-54 106.7 per 100,000 106.7 per 100,000 Women are most prone after the age of 75 Women are most prone after the age of 75 27.4 per 100,000 27.4 per 100,000 Men are 6 times more likely to commit suicide than females Men are 6 times more likely to commit suicide than females Higher rates of suicide for military personnel Higher rates of suicide for military personnel

7 7 Jeff Cherry, Clear Creek High School 2008 Faces of pain Faces of pain

8 8 Jeff Cherry, Clear Creek High School 2008 What causes suicidal behavior? What causes suicidal behavior? Why didn’t mental health improve after the fall of communism? Why didn’t mental health improve after the fall of communism? Is there a geographical pattern to suicide? Is there a geographical pattern to suicide? Is there a historical precedent for high suicide rates in Russia? Is there a historical precedent for high suicide rates in Russia? What health issues exist to create suicidal depression? What health issues exist to create suicidal depression? How do the economic conditions of a country contribute to the problem? How do the economic conditions of a country contribute to the problem?

9 9 Jeff Cherry, Clear Creek High School 2008 Psychology of suicide What causes suicidal behavior? “the extent and diversity of facts related to suicide are intimidating and baffling….” “the extent and diversity of facts related to suicide are intimidating and baffling….” Thomas Joiner – “Why People Die by Suicide” Thomas Joiner – “Why People Die by Suicide” Hopelessness brought on by factors such as: Hopelessness brought on by factors such as: Varying degrees of mental illness Varying degrees of mental illness Physiological conditions Physiological conditions Economic situation Economic situation Every suicide has its own story Every suicide has its own story

10 10 Jeff Cherry, Clear Creek High School 2008 A high profile case sometimes gets attention, even when not in Russia Russian supermodel Ruslana Korshunova leapt to her death from her NYC, 9 th story apartment on June 30, 2008 Russian supermodel Ruslana Korshunova leapt to her death from her NYC, 9 th story apartment on June 30, 2008

11 11 Jeff Cherry, Clear Creek High School 2008 The euphoria of the break-up of the Soviet Union was short-lived

12 12 Jeff Cherry, Clear Creek High School 2008 Uncontrolled Capitalism Why didn’t mental health improve after the fall of communism? The 1990’s saw a “grabification” of virtually all assets. The 1990’s saw a “grabification” of virtually all assets. Growing mafia and control by “oligarchs” led to continued shortages for most and runaway inflation. Growing mafia and control by “oligarchs” led to continued shortages for most and runaway inflation. 16% rise in mortality during the 1990’s attributed to suicide. 16% rise in mortality during the 1990’s attributed to suicide.

13 13 Jeff Cherry, Clear Creek High School 2008 Global geography of suicide

14 14 Jeff Cherry, Clear Creek High School 2008 Geography of Russian suicide Higher in rural areas than urban areas Higher in rural areas than urban areas Largely rural districts of Koryak and Komi have Russia’s highest suicide rate. Largely rural districts of Koryak and Komi have Russia’s highest suicide rate. Koryak 133.5 per 100,000 Koryak 133.5 per 100,000 Komi 110.3 per 100,000 Komi 110.3 per 100,000 Cause of death in cities are often difficult to determine and may actually be higher. Cause of death in cities are often difficult to determine and may actually be higher. St. Petersburg 17.8 St. Petersburg 17.8 Moscow 11.0 Moscow 11.0

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16 16 Jeff Cherry, Clear Creek High School 2008 Komi Republic Koryak A.D.

17 17 Jeff Cherry, Clear Creek High School 2008 Dostoevsky’s Russia Is there a historical precedent for high suicide rates in Russia? Tsarist Russia, starting in the 1860’s saw a significant rise in suicides. Tsarist Russia, starting in the 1860’s saw a significant rise in suicides. Many social and political reforms accompanied this time period including the freeing of the serfs. Many social and political reforms accompanied this time period including the freeing of the serfs. Newspapers and journals reported this newly addressed sociological issue. Newspapers and journals reported this newly addressed sociological issue. Dostoevsky wrote about it both in newspaper and in his book, “The Possessed”. Dostoevsky wrote about it both in newspaper and in his book, “The Possessed”.

18 18 Jeff Cherry, Clear Creek High School 2008 Tsar Alexander II is assassinated during this time of social turmoil

19 19 Jeff Cherry, Clear Creek High School 2008 Fyodor Dostoevsky (1821-81) Dealt with suicide and the nihilistic times of the 1860’s and 1870’s in “The Possessed”.

20 20 Jeff Cherry, Clear Creek High School 2008 What social conditions exist to create serious depression? Alcoholism in Russia is rampant, with strong evidence of its detrimental effect on the health of the Russian people, and specifically to higher suicide rates.

21 21 Jeff Cherry, Clear Creek High School 2008 Alcoholism in Russia 8 million men and 2 million women are alcoholics 8 million men and 2 million women are alcoholics 500,000 young people under the age of 15 are alcoholics

22 22 Jeff Cherry, Clear Creek High School 2008 Options are limitless

23 23 Jeff Cherry, Clear Creek High School 2008 The anti-alcohol campaign Mikhail Gorbachev attempted to slow the rate of alcoholism and its effects in a campaign in the 1980’s to make drinking un- patriotic and un-Soviet. Mikhail Gorbachev attempted to slow the rate of alcoholism and its effects in a campaign in the 1980’s to make drinking un- patriotic and un-Soviet. Lower mortality rates and a 23 to 100,000 suicide rate during this period was effective in the short term. Lower mortality rates and a 23 to 100,000 suicide rate during this period was effective in the short term.

24 24 Jeff Cherry, Clear Creek High School 2008 Drunkenness NO! … A communist must prefer milk or water!

25 25 Jeff Cherry, Clear Creek High School 2008 Alcohol is the best partner Count the days without in crime!Alcohol. (Or count the days in the gulag). The choice is clear!

26 26 Jeff Cherry, Clear Creek High School 2008 Post Communist effect The state monopoly lifted in 1992 led to an international market of alcohol into Russia. The state monopoly lifted in 1992 led to an international market of alcohol into Russia. Homemade spirits called samogon or gamyrka also flood the market. Homemade spirits called samogon or gamyrka also flood the market. Inflation of food prices do NOT affect alcohol prices as taxes go uncollected. Inflation of food prices do NOT affect alcohol prices as taxes go uncollected. Alcoholism increases Alcoholism increases

27 27 Jeff Cherry, Clear Creek High School 2008 Vodka - a new spin on chess

28 28 Jeff Cherry, Clear Creek High School 2008 Anything with alcohol Cleaning fluids, cologne, anti-freeze and virtually anything with alcohol is drank. 43% of alcohol deaths are directly related to one of these products.

29 29 Jeff Cherry, Clear Creek High School 2008 Effect on Suicide 12% reduction in life expectancy between 1990-1994 in post Gorbachev era. 12% reduction in life expectancy between 1990-1994 in post Gorbachev era. Findings: Findings: Frequent and heavy drinking lead to higher rates of suicide. Frequent and heavy drinking lead to higher rates of suicide. Cultures preferring distilled spirits have higher suicide rates than wine and beer cultures. Cultures preferring distilled spirits have higher suicide rates than wine and beer cultures. Acute intoxication also leads to increased incidence of suicide. Acute intoxication also leads to increased incidence of suicide. (Gruenwald, Ponicki, & Mitchell 1995; Razvodosky 2003; Rossow 2000) (Gruenwald, Ponicki, & Mitchell 1995; Razvodosky 2003; Rossow 2000)

30 30 Jeff Cherry, Clear Creek High School 2008 HIV/AIDS and Suicide in Russia UN statistics suggest anywhere from 550,000 to 1.6 million in Russia infected with HIV. Increase in infection rates starting in 1996. Primary source, the increase in intravenous drug usage. 50% of all new cases are women and children.

31 31 Jeff Cherry, Clear Creek High School 2008 Under-reported HIV cases (2001) Russian Federal AIDS Centre

32 32 Jeff Cherry, Clear Creek High School 2008 13,000 orphaned HIV children as of 2005.

33 33 Jeff Cherry, Clear Creek High School 2008 Industrial areas most prone

34 34 Jeff Cherry, Clear Creek High School 2008 Public demands government response

35 35 Jeff Cherry, Clear Creek High School 2008 Ads to address the HIV problem Almost 100 new cases of HIV are registered every day It is estimated that 1.2% of adults are HIV-positive 80% of those infected are 15-30 years old 43% of all newly registered HIV cases are women of childbearing age As of June 2006, 63 harm reduction programs were under way in Russia.

36 36 Jeff Cherry, Clear Creek High School 2008 The impact on suicide WHO report says there is at least an 8 times greater risk of suicide among AIDS patients. WHO report says there is at least an 8 times greater risk of suicide among AIDS patients. Most suicides occur shortly after discovery of the HIV virus. Most suicides occur shortly after discovery of the HIV virus. 26% of recently HIV diagnosed women in one study attempted suicide in NYC. 26% of recently HIV diagnosed women in one study attempted suicide in NYC. Russian numbers have yet to be determined Russian numbers have yet to be determined

37 37 Jeff Cherry, Clear Creek High School 2008 Economics and suicide in Russia Suicide rates rose during the 1990’s as the economic free for all hurt most Russian citizens. Suicide rates rose during the 1990’s as the economic free for all hurt most Russian citizens. Rising unemployment rates, massive declines in per capita income, and failed reforms led to this increase in suicide and increase in overall mortality in Russia. Rising unemployment rates, massive declines in per capita income, and failed reforms led to this increase in suicide and increase in overall mortality in Russia.

38 38 Jeff Cherry, Clear Creek High School 2008 The State Dissolves Loss of State run industries led to large scale unemployment. Loss of State run industries led to large scale unemployment. State subsidies disappeared for food and housing. State subsidies disappeared for food and housing. People who had jobs were left with no support network, no expendable income, and no credit. People who had jobs were left with no support network, no expendable income, and no credit.

39 39 Jeff Cherry, Clear Creek High School 2008 Economics and suicide in Russia It is estimated that suicides were responsible for approximately a 16% increase in the deaths during the 1990’s alone. It is estimated that suicides were responsible for approximately a 16% increase in the deaths during the 1990’s alone.

40 40 Jeff Cherry, Clear Creek High School 2008 21st century – Putin and beyond Suicide rates continue to remain one of the highest in the world. Suicide rates continue to remain one of the highest in the world. Health care facilities lag behind world standards for industrialized nations. Health care facilities lag behind world standards for industrialized nations. Chronic diseases brought about by lifestyle choices threaten longevity of this nation. Chronic diseases brought about by lifestyle choices threaten longevity of this nation. GDP ranks 58 th in the world and its HDI at 67 th globally. GDP ranks 58 th in the world and its HDI at 67 th globally.

41 41 Jeff Cherry, Clear Creek High School 2008 Sources Henriksson, Markus M., Erkki T. Isometsä, Päivi S. Hietanen, Hillevi M. Aro, and Jouko K. Lönnqvist. "Mental Disorders in Cancer Suicides." Journal of AffectiveDisorders. 36 (1995):11–20. Mitaishvili, Ramaz. 15, April 2008. Abkhazia Institute for Social and Economic Research. Russian peacekeeping in Abkhazia and suicide. United Nations. (2007) UN Aids Annual Report: Knowing Your Epidemic >http://data.unaids.org/pub/Report/2008/jc1535_annual_report07_en.pdf http://data.unaids.org/pub/Report/2008/jc1535_annual_report07_en.pdf Paperno, Irina. (1997). Suicide as a Cultural Institution in Dostoevsky’s Russia. Cornell University Press Krastev, Nikola. “CIS: UN Body Takes on Rising Suicide Rates”. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 9, September 2006. (2008)http://www.rferl.org/articleprintview/1071203.html http://www.rferl.org/articleprintview/1071203.html “Suicide rates in Russia on the increase”. The Lancet. Vol. 362 19, July 2003 (2008) { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/11/3183551/slides/slide_41.jpg", "name": "41 Jeff Cherry, Clear Creek High School 2008 Sources Henriksson, Markus M., Erkki T.", "description": "Isometsä, Päivi S. Hietanen, Hillevi M. Aro, and Jouko K. Lönnqvist. Mental Disorders in Cancer Suicides. Journal of AffectiveDisorders. 36 (1995):11–20. Mitaishvili, Ramaz. 15, April 2008. Abkhazia Institute for Social and Economic Research. Russian peacekeeping in Abkhazia and suicide. United Nations. (2007) UN Aids Annual Report: Knowing Your Epidemic >http://data.unaids.org/pub/Report/2008/jc1535_annual_report07_en.pdf http://data.unaids.org/pub/Report/2008/jc1535_annual_report07_en.pdf Paperno, Irina. (1997). Suicide as a Cultural Institution in Dostoevsky’s Russia. Cornell University Press Krastev, Nikola. CIS: UN Body Takes on Rising Suicide Rates . Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 9, September 2006. (2008)http://www.rferl.org/articleprintview/1071203.html http://www.rferl.org/articleprintview/1071203.html Suicide rates in Russia on the increase . The Lancet. Vol. 362 19, July 2003 (2008)

42 42 Jeff Cherry, Clear Creek High School 2008Sources Yelizarov, Valery, PhD Economics, Head of the Center of Population Studies, Moscow State University. United Nations in Russia. (2008). Demographic Policy in Russia: From Reflection to Action Rancans E., Renbert E.S. & Jacobsson L. (2001). Major demographic, social and economic factors associated to suicide rates in Latvia, 1980-1998. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavia, 103, 275-281 Bertolote, Jose Manoel and Fleischmann, Alexandra (2002). A global perspective in the epidemiologic of suicide. Suicidologi 2002. Gruenewald, P. J., Ponicki, W.R. & Mitchell, P.R. (1995). Suicide rates and alcohol consumption in the United States, 1970-1989. Addiction, 90, 1063-1075 Razvodosky, Y.E. (2003). Association between distilled spirits consumption and violent mortality rate. Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy, 10, 235-250. Pridemore, William Alex, PhD, (1999). Heavy Drinking and Suicide Mortality in Russia, Indiana University Joiner, Thomas E. (2005). Why People Die by Suicide. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, and London, England World Health Organization. 2008. 3, July 2008 >http://www.who.int/mental_health/prevention/suicide_rates/en/print.html http://www.who.int/mental_health/prevention/suicide_rates/en/print.html { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/11/3183551/slides/slide_42.jpg", "name": "42 Jeff Cherry, Clear Creek High School 2008Sources Yelizarov, Valery, PhD Economics, Head of the Center of Population Studies, Moscow State University.", "description": "United Nations in Russia. (2008). Demographic Policy in Russia: From Reflection to Action Rancans E., Renbert E.S. & Jacobsson L. (2001). Major demographic, social and economic factors associated to suicide rates in Latvia, 1980-1998. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavia, 103, 275-281 Bertolote, Jose Manoel and Fleischmann, Alexandra (2002). A global perspective in the epidemiologic of suicide. Suicidologi 2002. Gruenewald, P. J., Ponicki, W.R. & Mitchell, P.R. (1995). Suicide rates and alcohol consumption in the United States, 1970-1989. Addiction, 90, 1063-1075 Razvodosky, Y.E. (2003). Association between distilled spirits consumption and violent mortality rate. Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy, 10, 235-250. Pridemore, William Alex, PhD, (1999). Heavy Drinking and Suicide Mortality in Russia, Indiana University Joiner, Thomas E. (2005). Why People Die by Suicide. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, and London, England World Health Organization. 2008. 3, July 2008 >http://www.who.int/mental_health/prevention/suicide_rates/en/print.html http://www.who.int/mental_health/prevention/suicide_rates/en/print.html

43 43 Jeff Cherry, Clear Creek High School 2008 Photo Credits Perry-Castaneda Library – UT myfashionaddictions.blogspot.com/2008/06/trag... dincarslan.blogspot.com/2007_01_01_archive.html www.abc.net.au www.student.bmj.comwww.adreampuppet.wordpress.comwww.news.bbc.co.ukwww.blogs.trb.com www.sennaya.com www.okpatents.com www.zemun-fun.blogspot.comwww.mhayutin.com www.fas.org www.thebody.com www.danchurchaid.org www.unicef.org www.everythingforadoption.com/russia-adoption.asp www.uoregon.edu/~kimball/sac.1855.1903.htm www.topnews.in Jeff Cherry – Russia 2006


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