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An Instructional module developed By Linda applewhite

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1 An Instructional module developed By Linda applewhite
Cigarette Smoking An Instructional module developed By Linda applewhite Begin

2 Overview Think you know all there is to know about cigarette smoking? This module may perhaps teach you something new. Please be advised that some pictures are graphic. Read through the module, then at the end you will have a chance to test your knowledge. Menu

3 Menu Nicotine addiction and withdrawal Smoking statistics
Smoking and cardiovascular disease Smoking and cancer Other adverse health effects Smoking and death Smoking cessation pharmacotherapy Risks to nonsmokers Benefits of quitting smoking What you can do Self test Help to quit smoking Acknowledgments

4 Nicotine Addiction and Withdrawal
Smoking is more than just a habit for many smokers. It’s a nicotine addiction. When you smoke, nicotine reaches the brain in about 1 to 20 seconds. This causes a chemical called dopamine to be released in the brain. Dopamine provides a feeling of pleasure. Withdrawal signs are: The urge to smoke Depressed mood Insomnia Irritability Frustration or anger Anxiety Difficulty concentrating Restlessness Decreased heart rate Menu

5 Smoking Statistics Adults with 16 or more years of education –lowest smoking prevalence 11.3% Adults with 9 to 11 years of education—higher smoking prevalence 36.8% Adults living below the poverty level—smoking prevalence was higher 32.3% than those living at or above the poverty level 23.5% Menu Next

6 Smoking Statistics cont’d
As of 2011 Smoking Statistics cont’d Whites 20.6% African Americans 19.4% Hispanics 12.9% American Indians/Alaska Natives 31.5% Asian Americans 9.9% Multi-racial people 27.4% Nevada has the highest smoking prevalence among adults at 31.5% Kentucky 29.7% Ohio 27.6% Previous Menu

7 Smoking and Cardiovascular disease
As many as 30% of all Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) deaths in the U.S each year are attributable to cigarette smoking. Smoking also nearly doubles the risk of ischemic stroke. Numerous prospective investigations have demonstrated a substantial decrease in CHD mortality for former smokers compared with continuing smokers. Persons diagnosed with CHD experience as much as 50% reduction in risk of re-infarction, sudden cardiac death, and total mortality if they quit smoking after the initial infarction. Smoking cessation advice is associated with a 50% long-term (more than 1 year) smoking cessation rate in patients who have been hospitalized with a coronary event. Stroke Occurring Menu

8 Smoking and Cancer Oral cancer Tonsil cancer Bladder Cancer Menu
Smoking causes the following cancers: Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) Bladder cancer Cancer of the cervix Colorectal cancer Cancer of the esophagus Kidney cancer Cancer of the larynx (voice box) Lung cancer, nose and sinuses Cancer of the oral cavity (mouth) Ovarian cancer Pancreatic cancer Cancer of the pharynx (throat) Stomach cancer Oral cancer Tonsil cancer Bladder Cancer Menu

9 Other Adverse Health Effects
Post menopausal women who smoke have lower bone density than women who never smoked Women who smoke have an increased risk for hip fracture than women who never smoked Aneurysm, bronchitis, high risk of birth defects, still birth, and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), cataracts, bone thinning, and peptic ulcer disease Menu

10 Smoking and Death Cigarette smoking account for more than 440,000 deaths or nearly one of every five deaths each year in the U.S More deaths are caused each year by tobacco use than by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), illegal drug use, alcohol use, motor vehicle injuries, suicides, murders combined. If nobody smoked, one of every three cancer deaths in the U.S would not happen. Smoking causes an estimated 90% of all lung cancer deaths in men and 80% of all lung cancer deaths in women. An estimated 90% of all deaths from chronic obstructive lung disease are caused by smoking. Cigarette smoking is the single most alterable risk factor contributing to premature morbidity and mortality in the U.S African Americans are more likely than Caucasians to die from smoking related diseases like lung cancer, heart disease, and stroke. Tobacco kills more than half a million women per year worldwide. This number is expected to double by 2020. Smoking has a damaging effect on women’s reproductive health and is associated with reduced fertility and early menopause. Women who smoke during pregnancy subject themselves and their developing fetus and newborn to special risks, including premature birth, still birth, and infant mortality. Menu

11 Smoking Cessation Pharmacotherapy
Nicotine replacement therapy has been shown to be effective and should be available in all smoking cessation programs. Both nicotine-containing gum and the transdermal nicotine patch are now available over the counter and are widely advertised. A nicotine nasal spray is available by prescription. Menu

12 Risks to Non-Smokers Inhaling secondhand smoke causes lung cancer in nonsmoking adults. Approximately 3000 lung cancer deaths occur each year among adult nonsmokers in the U.S as a result of exposure to secondhand smoke. Surgeon General estimates that living with a smoker increases nonsmoker’s chances of developing lung cancer by 20 to 30%. Menu

13 Benefits of Quitting Smoking
Heart rate and blood pressure return to normal from an abnormally high level Carbon monoxide within the blood start to decline within a few hours Within a few weeks circulation improves, lungs start to clear Within several months a person can expect substantial improvements in lung function Sense of smell and taste of food will improve Risk of cancer and other diseases are reduced Quitting at age 30 reduces one’s chance of dying prematurely by more than 90% Quitting at age 50 reduces one’s risk of dying prematurely by 50% Menu

14 What you can do and one last thing
The best thing you can do is NEVER smoke a cigarette or use any other form of tobacco. It is also important to avoid all forms of tobacco smoke. Smokers are at an increased risk for Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD), cancer, and chronic lung disease. Peripheral vascular Disease Menu

15 Self Test Read each of the seven questions carefully
Click on the best answer If you do not get the answer correct, go back and try again 1st step 2nd step Final step if needed Menu Please begin

16 Question 1 The name of the chemical that the brain releases, which causes a feeling of pleasure is: Carbon monoxide Caffeine Dopamine Oxytocin

17 Awesome Next Question

18 No, that’s not right Try Again

19 Question 2 A common side effect of nicotine withdrawal is: Happiness
Insomnia Increase concentration Loss of appetite

20 YES! You are right. Moving On

21 You’ll get it next time. Click Here

22 Question 3 Which of the statements is true, pertaining to statistics?
Smoking prevalence is higher in adults living below the poverty level Smoking prevalence is lower in adults with 9 to 11 years of education The highest smoking prevalence rate among adults is found in Utah, Hawaii and California

23 You are smart Next Question

24 Oh that’s too bad Just try again

25 Coronary Artery Disease Peripheral vascular Disease
Question 4 Smokers are at an increased risk for all of the following but one: Coronary Artery Disease Chronic lung disease Peripheral vascular Disease Migraines

26 Great Job! Moving On

27 Oh no, wrong answer Try Again

28 Question 5 True or False? Women who smoke have a decreased risk of hip fractures than women who never smoked. True False

29 Keep up the good work Only 2 more

30 Don’t give up Next Try

31 Motor vehicle accidents
Question 6 More deaths are caused each year by? Motor vehicle accidents Illegal drug use HIV Tobacco

32 You are brilliant On its way Final Question

33 Not correct, sorry Give it another shot

34 Improvement in lung function Reduced risk of dying prematurely
Question 7 What benefits can a person experience if they quit smoking? Improved circulation Improvement in lung function Reduced risk of dying prematurely All the above

35 You did it! Great work. Next

36 Incorrect answer That’s okay, try again One more try

37 Help to Quit Online at
Call the National Cancer Institute (NCI) smoking quit line at U-QUIT or Free cutting edge services to people trying to quit Centers for Disease control and Prevention (CDC) Free quit support line (1-800-QUIT-NOW) To Note: Some religious groups that promote non-smoking as part of their religion, such as Mormons and Seventh Day Adventist, have much lower rates of lung cancer and other smoking-related cancers. Menu Next

38 Click here for acknowledgements
Congratulations Click here for acknowledgements

39 Acknowledgements Next
American Cancer Society. Cigarette smoking. Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Health effects of cigarette smoking. Retrieved from Second Hand Smoke and Cancer. Retrieved from Nicotine Addiction and Withdrawal. Retrieved from Ockene, I. S., Miller, N. H. (1997). Journal of American heart Association, 19, doi: /01.CIR The Tobacco Connection. Demographics of tobacco use. Retrieved from Next

40 Acknowledgements cont’d Click here to exit

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