Presentation on theme: "Attitudes of Marshallese Women Toward and Barriers to Prenatal Care"— Presentation transcript:
1Attitudes of Marshallese Women Toward and Barriers to Prenatal Care Emily Starr, BSN
2What is Prenatal Care?Prenatal care: any health care given to a pregnant woman after conception and before birth.Usually commences during the first trimester of pregnancy and includes visits throughout the course of the pregnancy.Visits usually involve medical screening, physical exams, education and counseling, and help with social services for women.
3Benefits of Prenatal Care Can reduce the likelihood of a woman giving birth early or to a low-birth-weight baby, as well as detect various anomalies that can be treated in-utero.Can decrease the time a neonate spends in the hospital, thereby reducing overall costs which is especially important for low-income women.Improve the mother’s health by detection of conditions that the woman may develop during pregnancy (e.g. hypertension and diabetes) which could pose a potential threat to the fetus.
4Republic of the Marshall Islands Population:67,182 (July 2011 est.)Infant mortality:23.74 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)Life expectancy:71.76 years (2011 est.)Fertility rate:3.44 children born/woman (2011 est.)Median age: 21.8 years (2011 est.)Net migration rate: migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)rm-map.gif
5Health Status in the RMI “Dual epidemic:” chronic health issues (e.g. heart problems and diabetes) and communicable diseases (e.g. Hansen’s disease, tuberculosis, etc.)Transition from marine foraging to more sedentary lifestyles plus American dietary principles has led to increases in obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, etc.Malnutrition: diet poor in vitamins and mineralsRadiation related issues: thyroid, some cancers, etc.
6Marshallese Health Beliefs Family“Untraditional” when compared to American notion of “normal”Multiple families living in same households; kids common“Clan raised”Circular migration
7Health Beliefs Cont’d Time Focus on the present, little regard for futureMakes preventative care difficultFrustrates appointment schedulesIllnessIllness=pain. Therefore, if no pain, no illness. Will discontinue treatment when begin to feel betterSick are often shunned and feel ashamed so do not readily admit illness
8Gender Roles Women: Raising children Home maintenance Direct decision makingHealth issues related to women and childrenMen:Protect familyProvide food and shelterSpeak for the familyShare in decision making
9Compact of Free Association Issued in 1986, outlines relationship between U.S. and RMI:U.S.: provides defense protection, financial aid, the ability to enter and exit the country without visa or time limitRMI: continues to serve as a nuclear testing site and provide exclusive military rights to the United StatesA Marshallese individual may enter the U.S. with only a passport, obtain a social security number, work, attend school, and serve in the U.S. military.The compact does not provide a pathway to citizenship and prohibits most state or federal funding.
10Reasons for Leaving RMI Better health careBetter educational opportunities for childrenFamily members living in U.S.Physical lack of landPopulation explosionPoor economyEmployment opportunities in U.S.
11BackgroundThe Marshallese population of NWA is estimated to be between 6,000 and 10,000 (the highest number outside of the Marshall Islands)The incidences of tuberculosis, Hansen’s disease, diabetes, HIV, syphilis (including congenital), and perinatal hepatitis B are all increased in the Marshallese population when compared to the general population
12Health Profile67% of congenital syphilis cases in NWA were of Marshallese ethnicity54% of these cases were identified at birth (only 31% were identified during prenatal screening)The incidence of perinatal hepatitis B among Marshallese increased from 8.1 cases per live births in 2003 to 16.8 cases per 1000 live births in 2005
13Trends in Prenatal Care Less likely to seek prenatal care: 34% of Marshallese women do not seek prenatal care whereas only 2% of non-Marshallese women do notLess likely to be screened for HBsAG: 57% of Marshallese women were screened, as compared to 91% of non-Marshallese womenMore likely to test positive when screened for HBsAG: 10% of Marshallese women tested positive, as compared to 0% of non-Marshallese women
14PurposeThe purpose of this study is to investigate the attitudes toward and impediments to prenatal care among women of child- bearing age in the Marshallese population in Northwest Arkansas.
15Aim 1Aim 1: Explore the attitudes of Marshallese women towards prenatal care.Research question 1: How does the Marshallese culture view prenatal care?Research question 2: How do Marshallese women describe their experience with prenatal care in northwest Arkansas?
16Aim 2Aim 2: Explore barriers to prenatal care as viewed by Marshallese women.Research question 1: How knowledgeable are Marshallese women of child-bearing age about opportunities for prenatal care in northwest Arkansas?Research question 2: What environmental factors impact noncompliance (e.g. money, transportation, etc)?
17Aim 3Aim 3: Identify ways to improve Marshallese women’s experience with prenatal care.Research question 1: What suggestions to improve prenatal compliance do Marshallese women have?Research question 2: What measures by health care professionals and institutions do Marshallese women identify would promote a better prenatal experience?
18Sample Qualifications for participation in the study: Female Marshallese ethnicityBetween the ages of (child-bearing age)15 participants ranging in age from 19 to 45Mean age = years; Standard deviation: years
19Design An interview was developed based on the health belief model Accompanied nurse from the Washington County Health Department on Marshallese home visits to interview participantsAccompanied member of the Marshallese community associated with the Marshallese consulate to conduct interviews
20Interview Details Qualitative exploratory interview process Each interview occurred face-to-face and an interpreter was present for each interviewEach interview took about 30 minutesEach participant had her own copy of the interview on which responses were recordedInformed consent was acquired at the beginning of each interview
21Health Belief ModelIndividuals will not take action to treat, control, or prevent a health problem unless they perceive that the problem is serious in nature and consequences, that taking action will produce a desired outcome beneficial to them, and that few obstacles exist in taking said actionPerceived severity (i.e. the degree to which an individual perceives a condition to be serious)Perceived benefits (i.e. the degree to which an individual believes that an action will have an outcome that is personally beneficial)Perceived barriers (i.e. the degree to which negative features of an action deter an individual from compliance)Components:Perceived susceptibility (i.e. the degree to which an individual feels personally susceptible to developing a particular condition)Other variables and cues to action (e.g. demographic, socio- psychological, and structural variables)
22Interview Breakdown 43 questions 13 questions involved demographic inquiries (e.g. age, time lived in United States, number of children, etc.)10 questions were related to potential barriers to receiving prenatal care (e.g. transportation, money, etc.)12 questions were related to prenatal health beliefs:2 questions addressed perceived susceptibility, 4 questions addressed perceived severity, 4 questions addressed perceived benefits, and 2 questions addressed perceived barriers6 questions involved evaluation of reasons to seek prenatal care2 questions inviting participants to share other thoughts, experiences, etc. related to prenatal care
23Approval and FundingInterview approved by Department of Health nurse as well as member of the Marshallese communityUniversity of Arkansas Institutional Review Board (IRB) approvalExperimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR) grant funding
24Data AnalysisMean, median, standard deviation, and frequencies were performed on all of the data to assess for initial patterns and trendsNon-parametric correlation test utilizing Spearman rho was done to identify significant relationships between dataSome items asked the same question in different ways, so variables were combined. Reliability analysis was run for each combination
25Time Spent in the U.S.Ranged from one month to 360 months (30 years)(M=91.27, SD= )The longer one spends in the country, the less likely it is that the pregnancy was planned (p<0.023)The more time spent in the U.S., the less likely it is to be afraid to talk to strangers, especially male doctors (p<0.004)Many participants said that they would be willing to go to a foreign male doctor, but not a Marshallese male doctor
26Atoll DistributionThe majority of participants were from Majuro
27Health Insurance46.7% (n=7) of participants do not have any form of health insurance.Of the 53.3% (n=8) who do have health insurance, 50%(n=4) identified themselves as possessing public insurance (e.g. Medicaid) whereas the other 50% (n=4) possess private insurance (e.g. through job or spouse’s job).The more children one has, the more likely that the individual will have some sort of health insurance (p<0.009)
28Number of ChildrenThe number of children per participant ranged from 1 to 7 (M=4.07, SD=1.831).The incidence of adoption among participants can be seen in Table 2.Only one participant had any children die.The more children one has, the less likely to be afraid of seeing a male doctor (p<0.043)
29Number of Prenatal Visits 100% (n=3) of participants who did not receive any prenatal care had a problem during delivery (p<0.009)In 2005, 34% of Marshallese women received no prenatal care
30Prenatal Care Locations More research needs to be done to determine why participants chose the location that they did.
31Problems During Pregnancy 20% (n=3) of participants admitted to having a problem during pregnancy.Complications identified: urinary tract infection, renal issues, diabetes mellitus, and baby in breech position (Caesarean-section necessitated upon delivery)
32Complications During Delivery 26.7%(n=4) of participants conceded to having complications during delivery.Problems during delivery included: Caesarean-section (n=2, 13.3%), cord wrapping around baby’s head (n=1, 6.7%), and baby being born prematurely (n=1, 6.7%).100%(n=4) of participants who had a problem during delivery strongly agreed (rated as 5) that they were afraid of the medical exam in the barrier portion of the interview
33Incidence of Regular Health Care Providers 80%(n=12) of participants do not see a doctor or health care provider for regular check upsThis correlates to two Marshallese health beliefs: the absence of pain indicates that they are healthy, and the focus on the present with little notion of preventative health care
34Incidence of Planned Pregnancy 20%(n=3) of participants’ most recent pregnancy was planned.This could be attributed to a cultural/religious belief or a lack of awareness about family planning.More research could be done to ascertain the reason why women do not plan pregnancies
35Methods of Confirming Pregnancy 80%(n=12) confirmed themselves as pregnant20%(n=3) of participants confirmed their most recent pregnancy by going to a doctor or health clinic,20%(n=3) by experiencing nausea/morning sickness,33.3%(n=5) by missing a menstrual cycle, and26.7%(n=4) claimed they “knew” they were pregnant.Potentially dangerous for mother and fetus
36Evaluation of Barriers to Prenatal Care Statement12345I couldn’t get an appointment when I wanted one.11/73.3%0/0%4/26.7%I didn’t have enough money or insurance to pay for my visits.2/13.3%I had no way to get to the clinic or doctor’s office.I couldn’t take time off from work. (n=14)13/92.9%1/7.1%I had no one to take care of my children. (n=14)12/85.7%I have to talk to people I don’t know.12/80%1/6.7%I had no problems with previous pregnancies.3/20%I was afraid of the medical exam.10/66.7%5/33.3%I was afraid to see a male doctor.I had a bad experience with prior care. (n=14)
37Most Common Barriers Top four deterrents to prenatal care were: No problems with previous pregnanciesFear of the medical examDifficulty getting an appointmentTransportation
38Health Belief Responses Questions12345My baby could develop serious health problems if I don’t come for prenatal care.2/13.3%0/0%1/6.7%11/73.3%I could develop serious health problems if I don’t come for prenatal care.13/86.7%Prenatal care is important to the health of my baby.14/93.3%Prenatal care is important to my health during pregnancy.My baby is going to be born without complications whether or not I go to the doctor.6/40%3/20%5/33.3%Going to the doctor improves my baby’s likelihood of survival.9/60%Going to the doctor has no effect on my baby.8/53.3%1.6.7%Certain illnesses can be prevented by seeking prenatal care.It will be easy for me to keep my prenatal appointments.3/13.3%It will not be easy for me to go to the doctor for prenatal care.Whenever I’m ill, no matter how mild the symptoms, I take it seriously.7/46.7%4/26.7%Whenever my baby is ill, no matter how mild the symptoms, I take it seriously.10/66.7%
39Health Belief TrendsResults in the context of the health belief model:83.4%(n=12.5) perceived susceptibility for themselves and their baby90%(n=13.5) perceived the benefits of prenatal care56.7%(n=8.5) perceived severity73.2% perceived no barriersBased on these numbers, it is important to focus on:Increasing awareness of severity by specifying consequences of the risk and the conditionRemoving identified barriers
40Evaluation of Reasons for Seeking Prenatal Care Reason for Seeking Prenatal Care12345I get to meet other pregnant women.6/46.2%2/15.4%1/7.7%I learn about changes in my body.0/0%12/92.3%I learn how my baby is doing.13/100%I get to talk with someone about my pregnancy.7/53.8%4/30.8%I learn better health habits, such as better eating and exercise.I learn about the labor and delivery process.5/38.5%
41Most and Least Important Reasons for Seeking Prenatal Care Top reasons for seeking prenatal care:Learning how the fetus is doing, learning better health habits, and learning about changes in the mother’s bodyLess important reasons for seeking prenatal care:Being able to talk about pregnancyLearning about labor and delivery process (if multipara)
42Future Prenatal CareAll participants said that they would seek prenatal care in the futureThe reasons given were as follows: 26.7%(n=4) gave no reason, 40%(n=6), claimed that it was best for the baby’s health, and 33.3%(n=5) stated that it was necessary for both mother and baby’s health
43Comments on Prenatal Care “Prenatal care is too expensive in the United States.”“Nurses can be rude and racist. I felt very judged and uncomfortable.”“Put God first because He can take care of all of your health needs.”“Someone made an error when they were closing up my belly after my C-section.”
44Limitations Small sample size Interviews conducted by members of the health care communityUse of translators
45Implications for Further Research Expand to larger sample sizeCompare health beliefs with other immigrants in northwest ArkansasCompare results with other Marshallese populationsReason behind choice of prenatal care locationReason why do not have a regular health care provider
46AcknowledgmentsSandy Hainline and the Washington County Health DepartmentMelisa LaelanDr. Marianne Neighbors and the Eleanor Mann School of NursingLing Ting from the University of ArkansasMarshallese community
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