Presentation on theme: "IMPORTANT! These slides are provided free of charge to law enforcement officers by Commander Sid Heal of the Los Angeles Sheriff's Department. They may."— Presentation transcript:
IMPORTANT! These slides are provided free of charge to law enforcement officers by Commander Sid Heal of the Los Angeles Sheriff's Department. They may be used for training, court room presentations, and similar purposes, including distribution to other law enforcement officers. They may not be republished or used for profit, including training or presentations, without Sid's express permission. These slides are designed to be augmented by qualified instruction and are in a near constant state of revision to ensure they represent the cutting edge of what is known on the subject. Consequently, future iterations of specific subjects are not only possible, but probable. They closely follow the book, Sound Doctrine: A Tactical Primer and are part of a comprehensive course on tactical science designed to provide students a fundamental but thorough understanding of tactical concepts.
Tactical Science Course Crisis Decision Making Principles and Precepts
Crisis Decision Making U.S.S. Vincennes (CG-49) State of the art ship Equipped with Aegis electronic battle management system Top Notch Captain and Crew July 3, 1988 Patrolling Strait of Hormuz Iran Air Flight 655 shot down 290 civilians killed How Could it Happen?
TADMUS Study Fogarty Report recommended Chief of Naval Operations to examine stress factors on human decision making TADMUS study began in 1990 Lasted 9 years Opted for actual field conditions rather than laboratory analysis Studied both individual and team decision making
Human Decision Making What do we know about it? Not entirely a rational process Brain is a multiprocessor Requires both short-term and long-term memory Expertise counts Perceptual information is not processed simultaneously Stressors will impede it Training will improve it
Three Factors Present in all Human Decision Making Rational Logical and methodical process Emotional Dispositions, Biases, Prejudices & Paradigms The truth is not enough, we must also believe it! Perceptional How the information is received
Perceptional Priorities Brain processes visual cues faster than auditory Motion processed before Color Color is processed before Shape Color yellow is processed faster than other colors Auditory - Frequency processed before direction (Sometimes called the “Cocktail Party Effect”)
Which would you rather have? Get on the on ramp heading Southeast out of the airport. Make sure you’re in the extreme right lane or you’ll have to completely circle the airport again. Merge onto Sepulveda Blvd. for about a half-mile and take the Imperial Hwy west ramp. Stay in the left lane and merge onto I-105 heading East. Take this freeway clear to the 710 freeway (about 13 miles) and head north to the 3rd St. exit. This exit is the next one after the 60 Fwy. Get off the Fwy. and turn left to 3rd St. and then right to Mednik. Turn left on Mednik to the first right after the big multi-colored building on your right. After turning right, stay straight and drive into the driveway into the Special Enforcement Bureau. If you are in the right place, you’ll notice the 60 Fwy. on your immediate right. Call 323-264-7084 if you get lost.
It was invented in 1938 by the Hungarian inventor, Georg Biro. While they come in many styles, colors and configurations, they are easily reloaded by anyone who can use one. Simply pick up the device and grasp the lower barrel firmly between the thumb and forefinger of either hand and twist counter-clockwise while holding tightly to the upper barrel in a similar manner with the other hand. Slowly twist the two components counter-clockwise while applying slight pressure between the barrels to avoid dropping any internal components. The refill is located inside the hollow cylinders of the upper and lower barrels and held between the front spring and the back spring, which in turn is held under a plunger. To reload the device, simply pull the upper and lower barrels apart while carefully avoiding dropping any internal component. Avoid contact with the point of the refill to prevent permanent stains of clothing and other absorbent materials. Slide the upper barrel assembly away from the remaining components and place aside. Remove the old refill component and discard. Insert a fresh refill into the lower barrel and repeat the steps in reverse order to reassemble. What is it?
Transferring Information I didn’t say she stole your money. 1. I didn’t say she stole your money. 2. I didn’t say she stole your money. 3. I didn’t say she stole your money. 4. I didn’t say she stole your money. 5. I didn’t say she stole your money. 6. I didn’t say she stole your money. 7. I didn’t say she stole your money.
Multi-Processing Humans can simultaneously think and do several things Brain does not give equal attention to all tasks Two demanding tasks can not be equally shared!
Limited Short Term Memory Brain processes about one symbol in 25 milliseconds Maximum retention of about seven items Without reinforcement, brain forgets in about 30 seconds. Examples include telephone numbers, social security numbers, addresses, names, etc. (323) 526-5541, 123-45-6789, 36-15-45
Takes much longer to acquire but there is nearly an unlimited capacity and they are retained for life Examples include experience, training, and education Where meaning is attached Where understanding occurs Long Term Memory
Expertise and Experience Count! Experts work, not by seeking the relevant, but by eliminating the irrelevant They don’t start from scratch, they start where they left off
Pattern Recognition Critical for expertise How Many Orange Balls? 19
Pattern Completion ?—L—M—N—? ?— 19—20—? ?— 7—9—11—? 1—2—3—5—8—13—? Fibonacci Sequence Shave and a haircut
Pattern Correction Aoccdrnig to rscheearch at an Elingsh uinervtisy, it deosn’t mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the only iprmoetn tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer is at the rghit pclae. The rset can be a toatl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit mcuh porbelm.
The Power to See the Invisible Characteristics of Expertise Pattern Recognition Anomalies (even subtle) Situation Awareness (big picture) Understanding of the Way things Work (Mental model of functions, coordination, mechanisms, etc.) Opportunities and Improvisations (leverage points) Fine Discriminations (Significance missed of/and events that will happen) Experiences the Past and the Future (Flying behind the plane, Event Horizon) Understands and manages their own limitations Memory, Situation Awareness, Self-Critiques, Strategy Selection
Stressors Multiple Information Sources Incomplete, unreliable, confusing or conflicting information Rapidly changing, evolving scenarios Requirement for coordination Adverse physical conditions Time pressure High work or information load Auditory overload or interference Physical threat
Training Works! As high as 78% improvement in TADMUS experiments Automated and Controlled Processing Software for the Brain Stress Inoculation Recognitional Primed Decision-making Pattern Recognition Pattern Correction Pattern Completion
RPD Model is descriptive, not prescriptive You can’t decide to use it, you can’t avoid using it Expertise can’t be trained, it must be learned! Some Things have to be learned but can’t be taught! Engage in deliberate practice Compile an extensive experience bank Obtain feedback that is accurate, diagnostic and reasonably timely Enrich experiences by reviewing prior experiences to derive new insights and lessons There’s nothing more practical than a good theory. (Scientific Adage) Training Expertise