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WHY DON’T THEY COMPREHEND & HOW CAN WE HELP THEM? Susan Hoch – Reading Specialist Galax Elementary School Jessica Kidd – Reading.

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Presentation on theme: "WHY DON’T THEY COMPREHEND & HOW CAN WE HELP THEM? Susan Hoch – Reading Specialist Galax Elementary School Jessica Kidd – Reading."— Presentation transcript:

1 WHY DON’T THEY COMPREHEND & HOW CAN WE HELP THEM? Susan Hoch – Reading Specialist Galax Elementary School Jessica Kidd – Reading Specialist Galax ElementarySchool ©Hoch & Kidd 2014

2 Think Like A Struggling Student….

3  Reading Strategies  Do the students understand when, how, and why to use strategies?  Are you, as the teacher, comfortable teaching the reason and meaning behind the strategies?  Understanding Vocabulary  Do the students understand the words you are using and the words they are reading?  Are you, as the teacher, comfortable with explicit vocabulary instruction?  Questions  Do the students understand the questions they are being asked?  Are you, as the teacher, comfortable asking questions at various levels of difficulty?  Fluency  Do the students read fluently at the level they are being instructed?  Are you, as the teacher, comfortable determining if the student’s reading problems are due to a lack of fluency? Why Don’t They Comprehend?

4  Word Callers  Do the students read fluently, but have no grasp on the meaning?  Are you, as the teacher, comfortable addressing a problem with word calling?  Motivation  Do the students want to read?  Are you, as the teacher, comfortable using different texts and strategies that would increase motivation, but possibly place you outside of your comfort zone?  Special Education Students/ English Language Learners  Are their underlying issues that need to be addressed by a specialist in your school?

5 Now… How Can We Help Them? By teaching strategies for: Comprehension Visualization/ Summarization Making Inferences Asking Questions Fix-Up Strategies Application Vocabulary Exposure Cartoon of the Day Plug It in Context Clues Don’t forget- Give them time to apply what they are learning!

6 Research Doodle-A- Story FUNneling 5 W’s Gist Doodle-A- Summary VISUALIZATION/ SUMMARIZATION

7 Improves Comprehension Enhances Engagement Promotes Reflection Why is Visualization Important? “…when readers use mental imagery as a strategy it has resulted in improved reading comprehension outcomes.” Credit: Developing Reading Comprehension by G.Woolley

8 Why is Summarization Important? “Summarization promotes ‘deep processing.’ As students identify links to prior knowledge and connections to main ideas in text, they enhance comprehension and retention.” Credit: Ultimate goal: Comprehension of text Identify the main idea Remember what they read Eliminate unnecessary information

9 Explain to your students the purpose of visualizing the text before trying this strategy. 1.Select a text on the students’ instructional level. 2.Prior to reading the text to the students, the teacher should choose 6 important events within the text that will aid the students in their comprehension. 3.Using sticky notes, flag the selected pages. Also flag other areas to model visualization of the text. 4.Begin reading the text without showing students the pictures. Be sure to model doodling on the board before asking students to attempt it on their paper. 5.Proceed through the text, modeling as well as guiding the students along.  This strategy may also be used for retelling.  It can also be used to create a beginning, middle, end thinking map to aid the students in writing a summary. Directions for Doodle-A-Story

10 Doodle-A-Story

11 -Pictures are not shown during reading Television In My Mind -Use the big TV - Pictures are shown throughout reading -Used to discover the big picture -Represents a summary TV In My Mind -Pictures can be shown to scaffold the student Other Twists on Doodling Direct ExplanationModelGuided PracticeApplication

12 1.Select a nonfiction passage that contains text features.  Headings, subheadings, bold words, and captions (these have been pre-taught or are currently being taught) 2.Students will have their own copy of the FUNneling Map to use as they preview the book. 3.Students will look through the book, writing down all headings and subheadings they encounter. They will also write down all of the bold words they find. 4.Students will look through the book again, focusing on the pictures and captions. After looking through all of the pictures, they will come up with three main topics covered by the captions. 5.Next, the students will meet either with their small group, or with the teacher to discuss their headings and captions. Initially, you will write predictions as a group, but later transition to the students writing them on their own. 6.Read the book and list three important facts. 7.Have the students look back over their prediction and important facts to see if they relate. This is where the students will revise their prediction to turn it into the main idea. FUNneling

13 FUNneling Example

14 1.Pre-teach the 5 W’s using a 5 W’s graphic organizer, such as “The Handy 5 W’s.” The organizer is to be used when teaching the students what each W means, not while reading a book. 2.Select a book and with teacher guidance, use the 5 W’s hand as a tool to help them fill in the “Five W’s Chart.” 3.After the students begin to understand the 5 W’s, then the teacher will begin modeling how to take the chart and turn it into a summary in the following order: 1.Who? 2.Where? 3.When? 4.What ? 5.Why? 5 W’s Gist Goldilocks (who) was at the bear’s house (where) one afternoon (when). She tried out all of the bear’s things, but liked Baby Bear’s best (what). Because the bears came home, Goldilocks was scared away (why).


16 1.Read aloud a story to the students. As you read, have the students doodle the beginning, middle, and end. The students determine the transitions between beginning, middle, and end. 2.The students will retell the entire story in sequence giving as many details as they can remember. They will use their doodles to help them recall the events. 3.As the students recall the details, the teacher records them in a list on the board. 4.The list is divided into beginning, middle, and end. The students will again use their doodles to assist them. They will determine the placement of the lines that the teacher will draw between the three parts. 5.Together, the list is reread and unnecessary details are crossed through. 6.From the remaining details, a summary is created in this format:  In the beginning, ______________________. In the middle, ______________________. In the end, ______________________. Doodle-A-Summary Adaptation of a Framed Sentence Summary

17 Doodle Map First Step:

18 Second Step:

19 Third Step:

20 Second Step:

21 Third Step:

22 Research Can You Solve It? Goosh CSI-Clues to Solve It Mysteries MAKING INFERENCES When the author doesn’t tell me What’s this all about I can figure it out. I put myself in a detective’s shoes. I use the pictures and word clues. I think about what I know. So the picture in my mind begins to grow.

23 Pictures scaffold inferential thinking. Wordless Picture Books Cartoons Ex: Facial Expressions “You personalize what you read to build a deeper meaning." Making Inferences is “Reading between the lines”. Research on Making Inferences “The author leaves… a trail of clues to combine with our background experiences for better understanding.” "Inferring involves forming a best guess about what the "evidence" (words, sentences, and paragraphs) means; speculating about what's to come; and then drawing conclusions about what was read to deepen the meaning of the literal words on the page."

24 Materials:  Magnifying Glass ($1 at the Dollar Tree)  Brain cut-out  Bouncy Baton  Story with predetermined questions that require an inference  Worksheet  Expo Marker and a pencil Procedure: 1.The students will read to a certain point in the text and be given a question (these can be on the board or a sticky note) 2.Using the magnifying glass, they will write all of the clues they find in the text that helps them to answer the question and write them down. 3.Using the brain cut-out, they will take those clues and apply them to what they know in their heads and write them down. 4.Once they have figured out the answer to the question using the clues in the book and what they know in their brains, they will use the Bouncy Baton to signal to the teacher they know the answer. 5.If they are correct, they will write all of their clues and answers on the worksheet. Can You Solve It?

25 Example: Can You Solve It?

26  Try to figure out the meaning of the nonsense word, galumpa in the following story: I love galumpas! I have used a galumpa many times in my life for many different reasons. I have used a galumpa in school, at home, and even while at the beach! Sometimes I use galumpas for entertainment, and sometimes I use them for information. The best place to find galumpas is at the library. I hope I’m able to instill in my students a love for reading galumpas! Goosh GuessReason (Proof)Correct?

27 1.Fill a small trash bags with “trash.” 2.In class, tell students that your neighbor is really strange and you never see her. You decided you wanted to find out more about her, so when she took her trash to the road, you snuck over there and stole it! 3.Now they are going to help you figure you what your neighbor is really up to. 4.Pull out one piece of trash at a time, and have your students guess why your neighbor may having something like that. 5.Continue pulling out one item at a time, until the bag is empty. 6.Have the students make a conclusion about your neighbor! CSI- Clues to Solve It …I wonder what people can tell about me by my trash?

28  Mini Mysteries & More Mini Mysteries Remedia Publications  Intriguing mysteries that require the readers to search for clues in the mysteries as they are reading.  Readers use clues to come up with logical conclusions.  Critical Thinking  Analyze Situations  Making Inferences Mysteries

29 Research 5 W’s Bookmark Question Master Question Cubes What Are You Thinking? A Twist on QAR ASKING QUESTIONS

30 Why Does Asking Questions Help? Asking Questions Very different from answering someone else’s questions Asking questions while you read means you are awake Means you are personally interacting with the text and using questions to make sense of what you are reading Sparks a highly active mindset during learning

31  Hands-on Tool for:  Peer reading, small group reading, and whole group reading.  Teacher led questioning  Teacher ask the questions and students answer using 5 W’s Bookmark & “5 W’s Handy Hand” tool if needed to aid in answering.  Student led questioning  Students ask the questions using their bookmark to assist them in understanding what to ask.  5 W’s Bookmark includes:  Story Structure –  Who? Where? When?  Plot – What? Why?  Problem/Solution 5 W’s Bookmark I ask questions when I read: Who, what, where, and when? I seek the answers in the book. I can find them if I look. I ask questions when I read: Why, what if, how might? I think of questions so I know what’s real. I share my opinions and what I feel.

32 *Students must first be taught how to ask questions while they read, through something like a Think Aloud. 1.Once the students understand asking questions choose a book and hand out the worksheet. 2.Explain to students that while they read, they need to be asking themselves questions, but also asking the author questions (ex- Why are you making her go there?) 3.Have the students read the book, and write down any questions they may think of. 4.Once everyone finishes, have the students look back over their questions, looking for the following: the most unique question, the most common question, and the question you were able to answer yourself after reading on in the book. 5.The students will mark their responses using: 6.Discuss all of the questions (save the unique questions for the end), explaining how sometimes we think alike, but sometimes we all think very differently. 7.After the discussion about their most unique questions, judge which question you think is the most unique. That person will be today’s “Question Master!” I am the Question Master! Most UniqueMost CommonAnswered Myself

33 1.Teacher supplies small groups with a question cube.  Question cube may contain picture cards & icons for younger students or question starters for older students.  Always include an open-ended “I wonder” on one side of the cube.  Great way to generate discussion among your students. 2. Teacher supplies students with text and stopping points in the text. (Great scaffold at first.)  As students get used to reading and generating questions, the teacher allows them to choose their own stopping points in the text. Question Cubes pattern/ Suggestions: Wondering Cubes Prior Knowledge Cubes Fact/Opinion Cubes Text Feature Cubes

34  Show the students a picture.  Instruct them to think out loud and have them ask questions that pertain to the picture What Are you Thinking? What are they doing? Where are they? How old are the boys? Why aren’t there any girls? Who are they? When was this?

35 In my Head  Different types of questions  Students indicate different parts of their body for different types of questions. A Twist on QAR In my HeartIn my Hand Right There Think & Search Author & Me On My Own

36 Research Fix-It-Up Toolbox Stop and Fix Bookmark Think Aloud- Fix It Watch Your Driving! FIX-UP STRATEGIES

37 Research on Fix-Up Strategies Cultivating Awareness “ The best fix-up strategy of all is to cultivate awareness: to be so engaged with the text that when that engagement starts to waver, just like a car veering from its lane, they immediately recognize it and can take steps to get back on course.” 7 Keys to Comprehension by S. Zimmerman Unfortunately, a lot of our kids do not realize when they start to “veer” off the road. They need to understand how important it is to think about their own thinking (metacognition). The National Reading Panel considers comprehension monitoring to be one of eight most effective strategies. Students need to be constantly reminded of fix- up strategies by using things such as anchor charts that demonstrate how and when the strategy was used.

38 Fix-It-Up Toolbox Toolbox of Fix-up Strategies I no longer have a mental picture of what I'm reading. My understanding has been interrupted. My mind starts to wonder and I'm thinking about all sorts of different things, but not about what I'm reading. I can't remember what I just read. I'm not asking or answering questions as I read. I encounter characters and have no memory of when they were introduced. I cannot figure out this word. Visualize Context Clues- Read on Retelling/ Summarize Reread Check Point! Clarify Ask! What do I know?

39  Stop and Fix Bookmark  Great for use in small-group lessons.  Students use bookmark to show which fix-up tools that are using to understand tricky parts of the story.  Students then verbalize how they were able to clarify the meaning in the tricky part of the story.  Other Options  I Can Picture It Bookmark  Fix-up bookmark using sensory words to help students build understanding of what they are reading through the use of their senses and pictures.  Sticky Flags  Students places a red flag on the page when they realize that comprehension is lost. This alerts the teacher that there is a problem with comprehension, and he or she needs to pause and use the Stop and Fix Bookmark to fix the problem. Once comprehension is regained and the students shares how he or she fixed the problem, a green sticky is placed on the page. Stop and Fix Bookmark

40 1.Choose a book, fiction or nonfiction. 2.On the wall, tape up a piece of butcher paper that has three columns: 3.Choose a “secretary” to track your thinking as you read. 4.Explain to the students they have to “turn on” their thinking as they read. This means they notice when they stop understanding what they are reading. 5.Complete a Think Aloud, focusing on the fix-up strategies on the butcher paper. It may sound like this: 6.Your secretary will put a check mark in “reread” to indicate that you had to go back and reread. 7.Use the chart as a discussion tool to talk about how you have to go back and reread, stop and think, or read on to ensure you understand the story. Think Aloud- Fix It Reread Stop & Think Read On “Hmm, I don’t remember who this character is. I better go back and reread to try and figure this out!

41 Clarifying & Self - Monitoring Strategy  Students learn how to use this strategy to help monitor for meaning while reading.  I ask where I am going - Text Features (ex: table of contents, headings)  I use my reading map – Stop, Wait, Go – Am I ready to read?  I check my speed – Am I reading to fast?  I slow down on the curves and bumps – I know when to reread.  I look for the signs the author gives – Pictures, Captions, Graphs  I ask why the author wrote this – Author’s Purpose  I think about the big idea – Main thing the author is trying to tell me Watch Your Driving! Do I understand what I am reading?

42 Research Reading & Writing Graphic Organizers Open Ended Questions APPLICATION

43 Research on Application Reading Writing Interdependent Inseparable Complimentary As readers we find meaning, and as writers we apply what we have learned to inform others, and develop a better understanding of what we have read. Writing is the act of taking what we have read & understood, and putting it to print. National Writing Project

44 What I’ve read What I understand from reading What I’m thinking Why Graphic Organizers? Application/Comprehension

45 Open Ended Questions Promotes critical thinking More reflective reasoning Better understanding More discussion – building knowledge together

46 Research Exposure Cartoon of the Day Plug It In Context Clues List- Group- Label VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION

47 Students Encourage students to use their vocabulary tools to understand new words as they read Encourage students to read, read, read! Connections Introduce new words in related clustersConnect new words to old knowledge Teaching Preteach key terms using more than just definitions Provide periodic review of words previously taught Research on Vocabulary Instruction

48 Exposure  Vocabulary PowerPoints  Daily Announcements  Word of the Day  Cartoon of the Day  Explicit Instruction  Read Alouds  Books  Newsletters  Can You Find a New Word?  Games  Vocabulary Walls

49 Cartoon of the Day Let’s look at this word together: What does this word mean?

50 Plug It In! Plug It in! when the correct word is plugged in, it is electric! Ex: When the snow started, the children became ____________ to get outside and play in it. They were so excited to build a snowman that they couldn’t wait! a. Eagerb. Disappointedc. Thrilled d. Angry Circle the connectors. Slash out the disconnections. 1 2 Which words are connected to the story or sentence? Which words do not connect ? It takes time to make connections, but…. If the student is having trouble, have them write a synonym for each word and use the synonym instead of the word.

51 Context Clues Unlocking the meaning of words The Eight Context Clues Strategies Strategy 1: Find nearby key words for clues. Strategy 2: Use story titles or reading topics to predict words your will read. Strategy 3: Look at pictures as you read for clues about unfamiliar words. Strategy 4: Use letter-sound clues to read words correctly. Strategy 5: Use grammar clues to identify an unfamiliar word. Strategy 6: Use key words in a passage to find a word’s meaning. Strategy 7: Use signal words to find synonyms and antonyms for an unfamiliar word. Strategy 8: Use pictures to think of synonyms for an unfamiliar word.

52 Step 1: Have the students think about all of the words they have learned from a recent topic they have studied and list them on the board. Step 2: Have the students work together to rearrange the words into categories, or groups. Step 3: Have the students label each group of words. List- Group- Label principal classroom teacher superintendent school bus driver school secretary reading specialist Let’s try! Make sure to have discussion about the labels the students pick!

53 We want to thank you for spending the morning with us! If you have any questions, please feel free to contact us. Also, if you use one of the strategies we discussed, let us know how it goes- good or bad! We would love to hear from you! Thanks for Coming! Check us out on our reading ideas at… our blog - & our TpT store – A Love For Reading Susan Hoch Jessica Kidd

54  Baumann, J. F. (2011). Journeys. Orlando, Fla.: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.  Beck, I. L., & McKeown, M. G. (2002). Bringing words to life: robust vocabulary instruction. New York: Guilford Press.  Cartwright, K. B. (2010). Word callers: small-group and one-to-one interventions for children who read but don't comprehend. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.  Cunningham, P. M., & Allington, R. L. (1999). Classrooms that work: they can all read and write (2nd ed.). New York: Longman.  Fisher, D. (2011). 50 instructional routines to develop content literacy (2nd ed.). Boston: Pearson.  Lazar, J., & Vogel, C. (2010). Now I get it!: teaching struggling readers to make sense of what they read. New York: Scholastic.  Lester, J., & Pinkney, J. (1994). John Henry. New York: Dial Books.  McKenna, M. C. (2002). Help for struggling readers: strategies for grades 3-8. New York: Guilford Press.  Mini mysteries. (20001997). Scottsdale, AZ: Remedia Publications.  NWP website - National Writing Project. (n.d.).. Retrieved July 16, 2014, from  Nobleman, M. T. (2005). Vocabulary cartoon of the day: 180 reproducible cartoons that help kids build a robust and prodigious vocabulary. New York: Scholastic.  Norris, J., & Larsen, J. (2005). Reading connecting school and home. Monterey, CA: Evan-Moor Corp..  Polacco, P. (1994). Pink and Say. New York: Philomel Books.  Reading Comprehension - K12Reader. (n.d.).. Retrieved July 16, 2014, from  Richard, E. (2005). 10 vocabulary card games. New York, NY: Scholastic, Inc..  Richardson, J. (2009). The next step in guided reading: focused assessments and targeted lessons for helping every student become a better reader. New York: Scholastic Inc.  Richardson, J. (2013). Next step guided reading in action: view & do guide. New York: Scholastic Inc.. Bibliography

55 DISCLAIMER Reference within this presentation to any specific commercial or non- commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer or otherwise does not constitute or imply an endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the Virginia Department of Education.

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