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 specific functions on specific to one side of the cortex rather than bilateral.

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Presentation on theme: " specific functions on specific to one side of the cortex rather than bilateral."— Presentation transcript:

1  specific functions on specific to one side of the cortex rather than bilateral

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3  brain injuries  “split brain” patients  imaging studies

4  left hemisphere ◦ analytical abilities ◦ quantitative skills ◦ language  right hemisphere ◦ music ◦ spatial abilities ◦ artistic abilities ◦ emotions ◦ facial recognition

5  most well studied lateralized behavior ◦ 95% of right handed have speech on left ◦ 70% of left handed have speech on left

6  aphasia – language deficit that cannot be attributed to motor, motivational, sensory or other explanations

7  characterized by broken halted speech, absence of prosody  non-fluent aphasia

8 Frontal lobe

9  agrammatism ◦ difficulty in comprehending or properly employing grammatical devices, such as verb endings and word order.  anomia ◦ Difficulty in finding (remembering) appropriate word  articulation ◦ difficulty mispronouncing words Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 20079

10  Can’t just be motor or it wouldn’t be an aphasia  Grammatical issues with connecting words

11  The lion was killed by the leopard.

12  lion killed leopard.

13  Can’t just be motor or it wouldn’t be an aphasia  Grammatical issues with connecting words  Non-fluent aphasia  Comprehension – fairly good; ability to read – fairly good

14 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Part of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Test

15 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

16  deficits observed depend on individual as well as where in this region damage occurs… ◦ fmri studies….. ◦ INSULAR CORTEX – speech articulation? ◦ apraxia?

17 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

18  fluid aphasia, deficits appear to be in comprehension; words are nonsensical  comprehension – poor  reading ability - poor

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20  recognition of spoken words  comprehension of meaning of words  ability to convert thoughts into words  How do we test comprehension in someone that may have Wernicke’s Aphasia?

21  surgical requirements

22  injection of sodium amytal or sodium amobarbital – anesthetic  used to determine hemisphere important for speech

23  split brain surgery

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25  initially – ◦ odd behaviors - ◦ subsequently – only can really tell by experimental manipulations in the lab ◦ Julian Jaynes – “Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind”

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28  Functional brain imaging ◦ fMRI or PET used to see which half is active when doing a language test Copyright © 2006 by Allyn and Bacon

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30  apraxia (of speech)- speech disorder with difficulty speaking correctly; not due to weakness or paralysis of speech muscles (NIDCD); complex motor commands

31  acquired ◦ most typically in adults after brain damage  developmental ◦ appears present from birth ◦ affects boys more than girls ◦ other names – verbal dyspraxia, articulatory apraxia, childood speech apraxia ◦ different than developmental delay of speech

32  cause or causes unknown  may be related to language development  may be neurological disorder  no specific lesions or imaging studies helpful  family history of communication disorders or learning disabilities

33  difficulty putting sounds and syllables together in correct order  longer words more difficult than short  inconsistent speech (say word and then unable)  children – comprehension much better than expression  severity can vary widely

34  0U&feature=fvsr 0U&feature=fvsr  rQ&feature=related

35  genetic component  family studies  twin studies  complex in terms of genes  complex in terms of etiology  complex in terms of traits ◦ can include phonological, auditory, motor, visual deficits which make reading even more difficult


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