Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Cross-Cultural Marketing Rafael Capurro Hochschule der Medien (HdM) Sommersemester 2006 Source: Marc Hermeking: Culture and Internet Consumption1

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Cross-Cultural Marketing Rafael Capurro Hochschule der Medien (HdM) Sommersemester 2006 Source: Marc Hermeking: Culture and Internet Consumption1"— Presentation transcript:

1 Cross-Cultural Marketing Rafael Capurro Hochschule der Medien (HdM) Sommersemester 2006 Source: Marc Hermeking: Culture and Internet Consumption1

2 R. Capurro: Vorlesung Interkulturelle Websiteforschung 2 Introduction  Culture-free products: like ICT  Culture-bound products: like food (difficult/non difficult to standardize) -> The latter notion needs to be revised because tecnical systems are subject to cultural influences.

3 R. Capurro: Vorlesung Interkulturelle Websiteforschung 3 1. Cultural Differences in the Consumtion of the Internet  The Internet as a product of ICT is a marketable good.  The Internet is a new channel of communication through which marketing communication can be spread.

4 R. Capurro: Vorlesung Interkulturelle Websiteforschung 4 1. Cultural differences…  Consumption research is an essential precondition for appropriate product design.  Try to uncover how much, by whom, where, at what time, for what purpose, and according to whose preferences the Internet is used and how it is used

5 R. Capurro: Vorlesung Interkulturelle Websiteforschung 5 1. Cultural differences…  The Worldwide Disparity 2000: most Internet users in USA (147 Mio), followed by Europe (91 Mio) and Asia Pacific Basin (75 Mio). 2005: USA (48%), Canada & Australia (46%), Germany (36%)…-> Digital Divide. Cultures with low Uncertainty Avoidance are more open to the Internet as new medium of communication.

6 R. Capurro: Vorlesung Interkulturelle Websiteforschung 6 1. Cultural differences…  The correlation with low Uncertainty Avoidance was weakened by high rates of literacy and international trade – but not by a high economic development.  Individualism as a (positive) correlation for Internet use.

7 R. Capurro: Vorlesung Interkulturelle Websiteforschung 7 1. Cultural differences…  Role of Cultural Communication Styles: Individualistic cultures (egalitarian, democratic nature of the Internet)  High/low-context communication (Hall): shared vs. transmitted information High Individualism -> low-context (explicit, direct, formal, written) (Swiss, Germans, Scandinavians, Anglo-Americans, English) Collectivism -> high-context (implicit, informal, symbolic, pictures) (Japanese, Arabs, Latin American, Italian-Spanish, French)

8 R. Capurro: Vorlesung Interkulturelle Websiteforschung 8 1. Cultural Differences…  High-context cultures: Indirect and transformational advertising messages creating emotions through pictures and entertainment (France, Japan)  Low-context cultures: direct and rational advertising messages providing product information (Germany, USA)

9 R. Capurro: Vorlesung Interkulturelle Websiteforschung 9 2. Implied Cultural Concepts  Cateora‘s model of the international marketing environment „uncontrollables“ (legislation, politics, economy, topographic facts, infrastructure, standards of technology…) „controllables“ (marketing strategies and instruments) But: this model is based on the concept of national culture (as Hofstede‘s)

10 R. Capurro: Vorlesung Interkulturelle Websiteforschung Implied…  Hofstede‘s model is based on five cultural dimensions (80 countries): Hierarchy Group orientation (Individualism) Gender Roles (Masculinity) Trust Risk-taking (Uncertainty Avoidance)

11 R. Capurro: Vorlesung Interkulturelle Websiteforschung Implied…  Hall‘s model (only a few countries are mentioned): High- vs. Low Context (shared vs. Transmitted information) Explicit vs. Indirect communication style (formal/informal, written/symbolic)

12 R. Capurro: Vorlesung Interkulturelle Websiteforschung Cultural Influences on Website Design  Site Quality (usability)  Establishment of trust  Creation of positive effect during website use -> more trust correlates to culturally- familiar communication style

13 R. Capurro: Vorlesung Interkulturelle Websiteforschung Cultural influences…  Culture-related design criteria: Correlation between content appeal and layout:  Layout: written text -> information/rational i.e. low-context communication  Layout: visual picture -> entertainment/emotional, i.e. high-context communication

14 R. Capurro: Vorlesung Interkulturelle Websiteforschung Cultural influences…  Structural design criteria: Content appeal Layout Length of pages Multimedia presentation Interactivity Structure of content Total volume of website Degree of navigation support

15 R. Capurro: Vorlesung Interkulturelle Websiteforschung Some general findings Websites of global companies tend to be  strongly standardized  dominated by rational content appeals  text-heavy layout presenting small pictures only  Low multimedia presentation  High interactivity  Large website volume  Deeply structured content  Intensive navigation support

16 R. Capurro: Vorlesung Interkulturelle Websiteforschung Some general…  Amazon Homepages: High-context: France Low-context: Germany

17 R. Capurro: Vorlesung Interkulturelle Websiteforschung Some general

18 R. Capurro: Vorlesung Interkulturelle Websiteforschung Some general…

19 R. Capurro: Vorlesung Interkulturelle Websiteforschung Some general…  In the Old Economy, websites of companies representig industrial goods and primarily adressing business users (B2B) tend to be standardized to a similar degree.  ABB UK and ABB France

20 R. Capurro: Vorlesung Interkulturelle Websiteforschung Some general…

21 R. Capurro: Vorlesung Interkulturelle Websiteforschung Some general…

22 R. Capurro: Vorlesung Interkulturelle Websiteforschung Some general…  The general nature of these websites corresponds to Low-context (explicit) communication Monochronic (linear) time orientation

23 R. Capurro: Vorlesung Interkulturelle Websiteforschung Some general…  Websites that address consumers (B2C) reveal different tendencies: High-interest (durble) products: modest standardization High-context (indirect) cultures exhibit a higher degree of cultural adaptation, more colored backgrounds, larger pictures, animated illustrations

24 R. Capurro: Vorlesung Interkulturelle Websiteforschung Some general… Multimodality tends to be higher in high- context (symbolic) cultures Navigation support tends to be less intensive in high-context (symbolic) cultures (frequent use of icons) -> for instance: Sony USA (low-context) vs. Sony Japan (high-context)

25 R. Capurro: Vorlesung Interkulturelle Websiteforschung Some general…

26 R. Capurro: Vorlesung Interkulturelle Websiteforschung Some general…

27 R. Capurro: Vorlesung Interkulturelle Websiteforschung Some general…  Websites representing global brands of non-durable, low-interest products reveal a higher degree of cultural adaptation.  -> Coca Cola USA / Coca Cola Italy  See Okazaki (2005): Analysis of 206 homages of US companies in four European countries (durable/non- durable products)

28 R. Capurro: Vorlesung Interkulturelle Websiteforschung Some general…

29 R. Capurro: Vorlesung Interkulturelle Websiteforschung Some general…

30 R. Capurro: Vorlesung Interkulturelle Websiteforschung Some general…  Local websites of global consumer brands occasionally seem to be more standardized worldwide.  See websites of French food brand (tend to represent high-context (implicit) style Websites of German car brand (tend to represent low-context (explicit) style (Mercedes-Benz in Italy, Lancia in Germany)

31 R. Capurro: Vorlesung Interkulturelle Websiteforschung Some general…

32 R. Capurro: Vorlesung Interkulturelle Websiteforschung Some general…

33 R. Capurro: Vorlesung Interkulturelle Websiteforschung Some general…  The „country-of-origin“ effect is difficult to achieve successfully: it works only in case the images of the product are positively related in the targeted countries (otherwise trust is created by culture-specific adaptations)

34 R. Capurro: Vorlesung Interkulturelle Websiteforschung Some results…  Verbal headlines or slogans differ quite the same respect  Other linguistic aspects (like the use of „we“, logical styles, forms of rational expression…) could provide for additional cues for cultural adaptation.

35 R. Capurro: Vorlesung Interkulturelle Websiteforschung Some results…  Degree of website adaptation with respect to the represented product: B2B: low-context (explicit, written): ABB (industrial goods) B2C: high(er) adaptation: durables (Sony), non-durables (Coca-Cola)

36 R. Capurro: Vorlesung Interkulturelle Websiteforschung Some results…  Too many websites are still characterized by a dominant low- context (rational, text-heavy) style  A country‘s low rate of Internet consumption could be considered as a general indicator for low quota of culturally appropriate websites.


Download ppt "Cross-Cultural Marketing Rafael Capurro Hochschule der Medien (HdM) Sommersemester 2006 Source: Marc Hermeking: Culture and Internet Consumption1"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google