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© The Association for Dementia Studies Promoting cultural competency in dementia care: A person-centred approach Dr Karan Jutlla Senior Lecturer Association for Dementia Studies, University of Worcester
© The Association for Dementia Studies BAME Communities In the UK the term ‘Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic’ (BAME) communities is used to describe a group of people ‘that share a similar experience and face particular challenges in getting the support they need’ (APPG 2013: 20).
© The Association for Dementia Studies Dementia does not discriminate Current estimate of nearly 25,000 people with dementia from BAME communities in England and Wales. This number is expected to grow to nearly 50,000 by 2026 and over 172,000 people by This is nearly a seven-fold increase in 40 years. It compares to just over a two-fold increase in the numbers of people with dementia across the whole UK population in the same time period. BAME communities are not just getting older but they are also growing in numbers (APPG 2013)
© The Association for Dementia Studies Service Eastern European AsianIrish
© The Association for Dementia Studies Outcomes By the end of this webinar you will: – Understand the core principles of person-centred dementia care – Consider how this represents the guiding principles for achieving cultural competency – Recognise some of the challenges for people with dementia and their carers/family members from BAME communities
© The Association for Dementia Studies Person Centred Dementia Care Professor Tom Kitwood 6
© The Association for Dementia Studies The Enriched Model of Dementia Care The Enriched model recognises the multiplicity of factors which affect a person’s experience of dementia including neurological impairment, physical health, the individual’s biography and personality, and the social environment in which they live. Kitwood (1997)
© The Association for Dementia Studies D=NI + H + B + P + SP By understanding NI, B & P and optimising H & SP we can help people live well with dementia NI Neurological Impairment H Health B Biography - life history P Personality SP Social Psychology
© The Association for Dementia Studies Person centred care & Personhood …. Person Centred Care are the processes by which service providers maintain the Personhood of those who receive their services….. “Personhood is a standing or status that is bestowed on one human being, by others, in the context of relationship and social being. It implies recognition, respect and trust…..” Kitwood, Dementia Reconsidered 1997
© The Association for Dementia Studies Person centred care fit for VIPS
© The Association for Dementia Studies Person Centred Care for BAME communities Represents the guiding principles for what it means to be culturally competent.
© The Association for Dementia Studies Cultural competency “Culture” refers to integrated patterns of human behaviour that include the language, thoughts, actions, customs, beliefs and institutions of racial, ethnic, social or religious groups. “Competence” implies having the capacity to function effectively as an individual or an organisation within the context of the cultural beliefs, practices and needs presented by people and their communities (Cross et al. 1989; Lee and Farrell 2006).
© The Association for Dementia Studies Cultural competency cont… For Gallegos et al. (2008:54) cultural competence refers to ‘the process by which individuals and systems respond respectfully and effectively to people of all cultures, languages, classes, races, ethnic backgrounds, religions, and other diversity factors in a manner that recognises, affirms, and values the worth of individuals, families, and communities and protects and preserves the dignity of each.’
© The Association for Dementia Studies Cultural competency cont… Involves more than having an awareness of cultural norms. It is an approach that values diversity and promotes inclusivity It represents a value-based perspective that recognises individuality (Gallegos et al. 2008).
© The Association for Dementia Studies Person-centred care with BAME communities social and political influences In order to achieve ‘mutually satisfying user/provider relationships’ such people should be regarded as individuals alongside knowledge of the social and political influences on their lives rather than regarding them as members of ‘other’ groups (Mackenzie 2007:76). Promoting inclusivity in existing services
© The Association for Dementia Studies BAME communities International Community: Migration National Community Local Community Family Person
© The Association for Dementia Studies Social Influences Culture and community norms – Stigma of mental health – Reluctance to ask for, and accept, formal support – Familial roles and a duty to care – Need to portray an image of well being to those outside of the family (Jutlla 2011; Moriarty et al. 2011; Jutlla & Moreland 2007; Seabrook and Milne 2004)
© The Association for Dementia Studies Sikhs caring for a family member with dementia in Wolverhampton Roles and positions in the family: – Cultural norms – Expectations – Pressures Sikh community: no concept of a separate ‘carer’ role Such pressures can lead to carers not making use of services
© The Association for Dementia Studies Ram Piari, aged 44 years, cares for her father-in-law ‘With us as being Indians or Asians... it’s like the besthi (shame) if you turn around and say that I can’t cope with looking after this person anymore... if we turned around and it got to the stage where dad needed feeding... washing...medication and bedpans... and whatever else... I don’t think my husband could do it and to tell you the truth... I don’t know if I can do it. So it would mean putting him in a home...And it would be the besthi (shame) of that.. People would actually point their finger and say look, look what so and so’s son did.. threw him out the house.. and I think that is a community attitude... whereas... I’m not saying that it doesn’t happen in the White population... I’m sure things like that would happen... but... people are more objective... they would turn around and say well actually yeah perhaps it was too much responsibility for that one son or daughter-in-law to look after them and probably he’s getting better treatment now than he would have been at home... but our community just really pressurises us…’
© The Association for Dementia Studies Pilot study participant, aged 33 years, cares for her father ‘I really struggled at the beginning... Mainly because I wouldn’t send dad to day care. I was scared of what the (Sikh) community would say about me for sending him... That I wasn’t a good daughter... And that I couldn’t look after him properly. But the CPN encouraged me to do it and although it really helps me because I work as well, I still feel that they are pointing fingers at me. It’s horrible really... I feel like an outcast.’
© The Association for Dementia Studies Simarjeet Kaur, aged 49 years, cares for her mother When informed of her financial entitlements, she stated: ‘I've never asked because they'll start saying... she's taking money for her mom. It's very expensive, they (Asians) don't realise… it's hard to get by.’ The stigma that would be attached to her therefore resulted in her initial refusal of financial entitlements
© The Association for Dementia Studies However…. Simarjeet further states that ‘Sometimes I feel like the Government does differences when it comes to our people. I don’t know like...it is them or it is us? Perhaps we don’t know how to ask for help...honestly. But then, if you don’t know what’s available, how are you going to ask? The CPN told me and I said, no-one told us about that. It’s supposed to be the doctor’s duty isn’t it, to tell you? So many things that would help to make it easier to care for mom.’
© The Association for Dementia Studies What this means Quite often such situations can lead to feelings of loneliness, isolation and sometimes even depression. A huge need for both informal and formal support (emotional and practical)
© The Association for Dementia Studies Experiences of formal support Cultural awareness issues – Religious requirements associated with being a baptised Sikh – Diet Ethnic identity matching – ‘Having Asian staff is not the answer’ (Darshan Kaur).
© The Association for Dementia Studies Ethnic identity & cultural diversity Whilst there are similarities across different ethnic communities, there are also differences both within and across communities based on: Religion Migration experiences Language Caste
© The Association for Dementia Studies The Caste System Castes within the Sikh population in rural Punjab fit into a hierarchy comprising four broad categories. Similar across other South Asian communities (Ballard and Ballard 1979; Kalra 1980): 1.Brahmins and Khatris - high rank priestly class who traditionally acted as warriors to the Gurus. They comprise approximately ten per cent of the rural population of the Punjab. 2.Jats - the ‘landowners’ and ‘farmers’ and comprise approximately 50 per cent of the rural population of the Punjab. 3.Craftsmen and service caste - comprise approximately 15 per cent of the rural population, of whom the Ramgarhias (carpenters) are the largest group. 4.The ‘untouchables’ - comprise approximately 25 per cent.
© The Association for Dementia Studies Cultural Diversity Illustration PunjabEast Africa Caste 1Sikhs Muslims Hindus Sikhs Muslims Hindus 2Sikhs Muslims Hindus Sikhs Muslims Hindus 3Sikhs Muslims Hindus Sikhs Muslims Hindus 4Sikhs Muslims Hindus Sikhs Muslims Hindus e.g. Shared language e.g. Shared social norms
© The Association for Dementia Studies Political Influences Life history Understanding migration experiences and what these mean for groups and the individual …Let’s imagine a specialist service
© The Association for Dementia Studies Migration and Dementia Key Historical Events Sukhvinder (Sikh)Rajesh (Hindu)Abdul (Muslim) 1947 India/Pakistan partition 1982 Khalistan movement in India
© The Association for Dementia Studies Sukhvinder – high caste Sikh Key life eventsThe Sikh care workerThe male White British care worker Growing up in rural Punjab 1960s UK – experiences of the National Front
© The Association for Dementia Studies Darshan Kaur, aged 49 years, cares for her mother ‘Her [mother’s] benefits weren’t covering it so everybody, all the sisters were putting in their little bit so that she can stay in this fantastic home… and there were actually…I think about four, maybe even five carers or nurses whatever... staff... that were Punjabi. But, that was another thing because if...when mom knew this is a lady called... I don’t know... Usha or Parveen or something that she knows that’s not Sikh, that’s Hindu...or in the conversation it would come out... then that would be another thing that she didn’t sort of... it’s almost like...if it’s completely ‘Goreh’ [White people] you know it’s one thing, but it’s… it does play on their mind doesn’t it? you know whether they’re Jat... so you know, you can say that you don’t have those sort of problems… but it’s just in their system really isn’t it? She’s not horrible about it, she wouldn’t... I wouldn’t think she’d...well I’ve never heard her say anything, like insult anybody but... it’s still there...so having Asian staff is not the answer.’
© The Association for Dementia Studies Diversity Diversity within BAME communities Diversity within South Asian communities Diversity within one community (i.e. the Sikh community) One size does not fit all
© The Association for Dementia Studies Rani, aged 44 years, cares for her father-in-law ‘He went into respite care, became unwell and ended up in hospital for a while. I didn’t realise he wasn’t eating until I went into visit him and saw a sign by his bed saying nil by mouth. I questioned them about this and they told me that the speech therapist had been in and confirmed that he could no longer swallow. They said that he should go to Compton Hospice... They were basically telling me that he was ready to die and there was no way back for him. So, naturally, I demanded to speak to the speech therapist...
© The Association for Dementia Studies Rani cont......she was assessing him with a banana yoghurt. I couldn’t believe it. He doesn’t like bananas and he doesn’t eat yoghurt. I took some home cooked Indian food in and he ate it.. He ate it all in front of her. That day I brought him back home and decided that he would never go to respite again, or to any other place for that matter. If I didn’t go in, he would be in a hospice dying right now. What made them think they could make such a massive decision like that without talking to us first Karan? What kind of a system is this?’ ©Copyright Karan Jutlla
© The Association for Dementia Studies In the case of Rani… Was this because staff weren’t culturally competent? Or… because staff weren’t being person- centred?
© The Association for Dementia Studies Pilot study participant, aged 70 years, cares for her husband ‘When he used to go to day care, they just assumed that he wanted Asian food and that he wouldn’t be interested in the fish and chips they served every Friday… but we’ve always eaten fish and chips on a Friday. The children used to love it.’
© The Association for Dementia Studies A person-centred approach Understanding cultural norms and discourses help us to understand where people are coming from... Helps us to understand why People’s interpretations of those norms are dependent upon their own life experiences
© The Association for Dementia Studies Service Perspective Fear of the ‘unknown’ Being ‘politically correct:’ ‘I’m sometimes frightened to ask in case I say the wrong thing’ (Care worker) Assumptions about community support: ‘They look after their own don’t they?’ Reliance on family for information Language is seen as the biggest barrier
© The Association for Dementia Studies We need to… Build a “culturally competent” workforce: increase confidence/defeat stereotypes/understand the challenges Work collaboratively with community organisations, faith groups and families Know about other work in this area A clear value base: Cultural competence is a set of congruent behaviours, knowledge, attitudes and policies that come together in a system, organisation or among professionals that enables effective work in cross-cultural situations (Lee and Farrell 2006)
© The Association for Dementia Studies Person-centred care ‘The APPG feels the term ‘black, Asian and minority ethnic communities’ is useful in this context as it focuses attention on groups that share a similar experience and face particular challenges in getting the support they need. But nonetheless it is important to acknowledge and respond to the differences within ethnic groups and, at an individual level, ensure a person- centred approach is taken’ (APPG 2013: 20).
© The Association for Dementia Studies In person-centred care, biography is key! All these effect how a person with dementia behaves, feels and thinks…… By understanding NI, B & P and optimising H & SP we can help people live well with dementia NI Neurological Impairment H Health B Biography - life history P Personality SP Social Psychology
© The Association for Dementia Studies Person Centred Guiding Principles (Brooker 2007) Do my actions V alue and honour the people that I work with? Do I recognise the I ndividual uniqueness of the people I work with? Do I make a serious attempt to see my actions from their P erspective or stand point? Do my actions provide the S upport for people to feel socially confident and that they are not alone?
© The Association for Dementia Studies Person-centred care with migrant communities social and political influences In order to achieve ‘mutually satisfying user/provider relationships’ such people should be regarded as individuals alongside knowledge of the social and political influences on their lives rather than regarding them as members of ‘other’ groups (Mackenzie 2007:76). Promoting inclusivity in existing services
© The Association for Dementia Studies Thank you… any questions? Dr Karan Jutlla Association for Dementia Studies University of Worcester dementia-studies.html Thank you… any questions? Dr Karan Jutlla Association for Dementia Studies University of Worcester dementia-studies.html
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