Ribosomes Structure Ribosomes are composed of proteins and RNA in two subunits (One large and one small) There are many of these organelles in the cell. Ribosome Structure
Ribosomes Location Bound ribosomes occur attached to the endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes also occur in the cytoplasm alone or in groups. These groups are called polyribosomes Endoplasmic Reticulum
Ribosomes Function Ribosomes perform protein synthesis, which is the assembly of amino acids in proteins Transfer of Amino Acids to Proteins
Ribosomes Function (Cont.) Ribosomes in the cytoplasm synthesize proteins to be used in the cell by organalles like mitochondria and chloroplasts Ribosomes on the endoplasmic reticulum synthesize proteins that are eventually secreted by the cell Wire frame of a Ribosome
Ribosomes How They Work Once the two large and small subunits are joined by the RNA from the nucleus, the ribosomes translate the RNA into a specific sequence of amino acids, called polypeptide chains. Process
Ribosomes Importance Our cells and bodies need protein to survive without ribosomes, we wouldn’t get any protein Without the ribosomes amino acids wouldn’t be synthesized into proteins which plays a vital role in our body. Proteins make up our hair, nails and connective tissues.
Mitochondrion Structure Size of a bacteria Has a double membrane The outer membrane is fairly smooth Inner membrane is twisted
Mitochondrion Location Mitochondrion can be found in the cell, outside the nucleus, in the cytoplasm There could be more than one mitochondrion in a cell, as shown below: Mitochondrion Plant Cell
Mitochondrion Function Performs cellular respiration: They convert chemical energy of glucose into chemical energy of ATP(Adenosine Triphosphate: primary source of energy) The process burns up oxygen and gives off carbon dioxide and water.
Mitochondrion Importance Without mitochondrion ATP production would cease and the cells would not be able to function. Old and warn out Mitochondrion
Lysosomes Location Lysosomes can be found in the cell, in the cytoplasm There could be more than one lysosome in a cell, as shown below: Lysosomes Plant Cell
Lysosomes Function Digests macromolecules, old cell parts and microorganisms This takes place when a food vacuole combines with a lysosome to form a digestive vacuole Lysosomes also help cells renew themselves. The human liver recycles itself each week from lysosomes Function
Lysosomes Importance If lysosomes start to break apart they will leak and a large amount of leakage can destroy cells Process of a cell dying
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