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Chapter 6.1 DEVELOPMENT OF THE MODERN PERIODIC TABLE.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6.1 DEVELOPMENT OF THE MODERN PERIODIC TABLE."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 6.1 DEVELOPMENT OF THE MODERN PERIODIC TABLE

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3 PERIODIC  PERIODIC LAW  PERIODIC TABLE Something periodic occurs at regular or at least generally predictable intervals Periodic law - physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers Periodic Table of Elements – a table of the elements, arranged by atomic number, that shows the patterns in their properties; based on the periodic law

4 ELEMENT A pure substance made up of one kind of atom that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by physical or chemical means 90 occur naturally on earth 25 were synthesized (made) by scientists

5 DMITRI MENDELEEV In the 1860’s he devised a periodic table where the elements were ordered by their atomic masses He did this by grouping elements together according to their similarities Image taken from:

6 MENDELEEV’S PREDICTIONS Although Mendeleev’s Periodic Table of Elements had missing elements or “gaps”, he was able to predict the characteristics of these missing elements because of Periodic Law.

7 HENRY MOSELEY In 1914, his work led to a revision of the periodic table by rearranging the elements by their atomic numbers He concluded that the number of protons in an atom is its atomic number Image taken from:

8 CLASSES OF ELEMENTS This zig-zag staircase line separates the metals from the nonmetals. The elements along this line are sometimes called metalloids

9 METALS Location Found on the left of the zigzag line/staircase on the periodic table (exception  Hydrogen) Chemical Properties Have few electrons in their outer energy level, thus lose electrons easily Physical Properties ductile, good conductors, malleable, shiny, most are room temp. What metal is not a room temperature? Image taken from: lement-Photo-Gallery.--98/Sodium.htm 11 Na Au

10 ATOMS WITH FEW ELECTRONS IN THEIR OUTER ENERGY LEVEL Notice : only 1 electron in outer level Notice : only 2 electrons in outer level 11 Na Be Beryllium Sodium

11 NON-METALS Location Most found to the right of the zigzag line/staircase on the periodic table Chemical Properties Most have almost full outer energy levels, thus they tend to gain electrons; some have completely full outer level Physical Properties not ductile or malleable, not shiny, poor conductors, most are solid, but some are gas at room temperature Image taken from: Image taken from: https://www.dmr.nd.gov/ndgs/rockandmineral/sulfur.asp 16 S Cl

12 ATOMS WITH FULL OR ALMOST FULL OUTER ENERGY LEVEL Notice : 7 electrons in outer level – almost full Notice : 2 electrons in outer level – FULL Notice : 6 electrons in outer level – almost full 9 F O He Oxygen Fluorine Helium

13 METALLOIDS Location Border the zigzag line/staircase on the periodic table Chemical Properties Most atoms have ½ (≈) complete set of electrons in outer level Physical Properties have properties of both metals and non-metals Image taken from: Image taken from: 5 B Si

14 ATOMS WITH ½ (≈) COMPLETE OUTER ENERGY LEVEL Notice : only 3 electrons in outer level Notice : only 4 electrons in outer level 5 B Si Boron Silicon

15 Element Symbol (Written with a capital letter or a capital followed by a lower case if two letters ) Element Name Atomic Mass (Rounded to a whole number, equals the number of protons and neutrons) USING THE PERIODIC TABLE Atomic Number (Number of protons) Electron Configuration (Written in order of orbitals from top to bottom: top is innermost and bottom is outermost [valence])

16 USING THE PERIODIC TABLE Letters are color coded based on the natural physical state of the element The boxes of each element are color coded based on the group (or subgroup) to which the element belongs

17 TODAY – 11/10/14 Complete Ch. 6 Vocabulary Page 197 (20 words) Due by end of class – NO EXCUSES Begin color-coding Periodic Table 1 side: metals, nonmetals & metalloids Names of groups 2 nd side: periodic trends Atomic radius Ionic radius Ionization energy Electronegativity


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