Presentation on theme: "Kohlberg’s Theories of Moral Development"— Presentation transcript:
1 Kohlberg’s Theories of Moral Development HRE 4M1 – Grade 12M ReligionChapter 10 – Free to be Fully Alive
2 Stages of Moral Reasoning LEVEL 1 (Pre-Conventional) – FOCUS ON THE SELFStage 1: Punishment and ObedienceStage 2: Personal UsefulnessLEVEL 2 (Conventional) – FOCUS ON OTHERSStage 3: Conforming to the Will of the GroupStage 4: Authority and Social Order (Law and Order)LEVEL 3 (Post-Conventional) – FOCUS ON PRINCIPLESStage 5: Social Contract and Human RightsStage 6: Universal Ethical Principles (Personal Conscience)
3 Kohlberg’s Heinz Dilemma Example A woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her. It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was charging ten times what the drug cost him to produce. He paid $200 for the radium and charged $2,000 for a small dose of the drug. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together about $ 1,000, which is half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said, "No, I discovered the drug and I'm going to make money from it." So Heinz got desperate and broke into the man's store to steal the drug for his wife. Should Heinz have broken into the laboratory to steal the drug for his wife? Why or why not?
4 Pre-Conventional Examples STAGE DESCRIPTIONExamples of Moral Reasoning Favouring Heinz’s TheftExamples of Moral Reasoning Opposing Heinz’s TheftPunishment and ObedienceHe should steal the drug, because he offered to pay for it and because it is only worth $200, not the $2000 the druggist was chargingHe should steal it because if he let’s his wife die, he would get in troubleHe shouldn’t steal because it is a big crimeHe shouldn’t steal the drug, because he might get caught and sent to jailPersonal UsefulnessIt is alright to steal the drug, becasue his wife needs it to live and he needs her companionshipHe should steal the drug, because his wife needs it and he isn’t doing any harm to the druggist because he can pay him back laterHe shouldn’t steal the drug, because he might get caught and his wife would probably die before he gets out of jail – it wouldn’t do much goodHe shouldn’t steal, because the druggist was not doing a bad thing by wanting to make a prophet
5 Conventional Examples STAGE DESCRIPTIONExamples of Moral Reasoning Favouring Heinz’s TheftExamples of Moral Reasoning Opposing Heinz’s TheftConforming to the Will of the GroupHe should steal the drug, because society expects a loving husband to help his wife regardless of the consequencesHe should steal the drug, because if he didn’t his family would think he was an uncaring humanHe shouldn’t steal the drug, because he will bring dishonour on his family and they will be ashamed of himHe shouldn’t steal the drug, because no one would blame him for doing all he could legally (The druggist would be the heartless one)Law and OrderHe should steal the drug, because if he did nothing, he would be responsible for his wife’s death. He should take it with the idea of paying the druggist backHe should steal the drug, because if people like the druggist are allowed to get away with being greedy and selfish, society would eventually break downHe should not steal the drug, because if people are allowed to take the law into their own hands, regardless of how they justify it, social order would break downHe shouldn’t steal the drug, because it’s still always wrong to steal and his law-breaking would cause him to feel guilty
6 Post-Conventional Examples STAGE DESCRIPTIONExamples of Moral Reasoning Favouring Heinz’s TheftExamples of Moral Reasoning Opposing Heinz’s TheftSocial Contract and Human RightsThe theft is justified, because the law is not set up to deal with the circumstances in which obeying it would cost a human life.It is not reasonable to say that stealing is wrong, because the law should not allow the druggist to deny someone access to a life saving treatmentYou can’t really blame him for stealing the drug, but even such extreme circumstances do not justify a person taking the law into their own handsHe shouldn’t steal the drug, because eventually he would pay the price of loss of self-respect for disregarding the rules of societyUniversal Ethical PrinciplesHe must steal the drug, because when a choice must be made between disobeying a law and saving a life, one must act in accordance with the higher principle of preserving and respecting lifeHe is justified in stealing the drug, because if he had failed in this action to save his wife, he would not have lived up to his own standards of conscienceHeinz must consider the other principle who need the drug just as much as his wife. By stealing the drug he would be acting in accordance with his own particular feelings with utter disregard for the value of all the lives involvedHe should not steal the drug, because though he would probably not be blamed by others, he would have to deal with his own self-condemnation, because he did not live up to his own conscience and standards of honesty.