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Chapter 3 Database Architectures and the Web. Multi-User DBMS Architectures u Teleprocessing u File-server u Client-server.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Database Architectures and the Web. Multi-User DBMS Architectures u Teleprocessing u File-server u Client-server."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3 Database Architectures and the Web

2 Multi-User DBMS Architectures u Teleprocessing u File-server u Client-server

3 Teleprocessing u Traditional architecture u Single mainframe with number of terminals attached

4 File-Server u File-server connected to several workstations across network u Database resides on file-server u DBMS and applications run on each workstation u Disadvantages: –Significant network traffic –Copy of DBMS on each workstation –Concurrency, recovery and integrity control more complex

5 File-Server Architecture

6 Traditional Two-Tier Client-Server u Client (tier 1) manages user interface and runs applications u Server (tier 2) holds database and DBMS u Advantages: –wider access to existing databases –increased performance –possible reduction in hardware costs –reduction in communication costs –increased consistency

7 Traditional Two-Tier Client-Server


9 Three-Tier Client-Server u Problems preventing true scalability in 2-tier: –‘Fat’ client, requiring considerable resources on client’s computer to run effectively –Significant client side administration overhead u 1995 - three layers proposed

10 Three-Tier Client-Server u Advantages: –‘Thin’ client »Requires less expensive hardware –Application maintenance centralized –Easier to modify/replace one tier without affecting others –Separation business logic from database functions → easier to implement load balancing –Maps naturally to Web environment

11 Three-Tier Client-Server

12 Transaction Processing Monitors (TPM) u Program that controls data transfer between clients and servers in order to provide a consistent environment, particularly for Online Transaction Processing (OLTP).

13 TPM u Transaction processing monitor –Controls data transfer between clients/servers –Provides a consistent environment, particularly for online transaction processing (OLTP) –Significant advantages »Transaction routing »Managing distributed transactions »Load balancing »Funneling »Increased reliability

14 TPM as middle tier of 3-tier client-server

15 Multi-user DBMS Architectures u Teleprocessing –Traditional architecture for multi-user systems –One computer with a single central processing unit (CPU) and a number of terminals –Put a huge burden on the central computer u Downsizing –Replacing expensive mainframe computers with more cost-effective networks of personal computers

16 Multi-user DBMS Architectures u File-server architecture –Processing distributed about network –Disadvantages: »Large amount of network traffic »Full copy of DBMS required on each workstation »Concurrency, recovery, and integrity control are complex

17 Multi-user DBMS Architectures u Traditional two-tier client–server architecture –Client process requires some resource –Server provides the resource –Basic separation of four main components of business application –Typical interaction between client and server

18 Summary of client–server functions

19 Multi-user DBMS Architectures u Three-tier client–server architecture –User interface layer –Business logic and data processing layer –DBMS –Many advantages over traditional two-tier or single-tier designs

20 Multi-user DBMS Architectures u N-tier architectures –Three-tier architecture can be expanded to n tiers u Application servers –Hosts an application programming interface (API) to expose business logic and business processes for use by other applications

21 Multi-user DBMS Architectures u Middleware –Software that mediates with other software –Communication among disparate applications –Six main types »Asynchronous Remote Procedure Call (RPC) »Synchronous RPC »Publish/Subscribe »Message-Oriented middleware (MOM) »Object-request broker (ORB) »SQL-oriented data access

22 Web Services and Service-Oriented Architectures u Web service –Software system that supports interoperable machine-to-machine interaction over network –No user interface –Examples of Web services »Microsoft Virtual Earth Web service –Uses widely accepted technologies and standards

23 Web Services and Service-Oriented Architectures u Service-Oriented Architectures (SOA) –Architecture for building applications that implement business processes as sets of services u Some principles built upon: –Loose coupling –Reusability –Composability

24 Traditional vs. SOA Architecture

25 Distributed DBMSs u Distributed database –Logically interrelated collection of shared data physically (single database) distributed over network u Distributed DBMS –Software system that permits management of distributed database –Distribution transparent to users

26 Distributed DBMSs u Characteristics of DDBMS –Collection of logically related shared data –Data split into fragments –Fragments may be replicated –Fragments/replicas allocated to sites –Sites linked by communications network –Data at each site controlled by DBMS –DMBS handles local apps autonomously –Each DBMS in one or more global app

27 Distributed DBMSs u Distributed processing –Centralized database that can be accessed over computer network u System consists of data physically distributed across number of sites in network

28 Data Warehousing u Data warehouse –Consolidated/integrated view of corporate data –Drawn from disparate operational data sources –Range of end-user access tools capable of supporting simple to highly complex queries to support decision making –Subject-oriented, integrated, time-variant, and nonvolatile

29 Typical Architecture of a Data Warehouse

30 Components of a DBMS u Major components of a DBMS: –Query processor –Database manager (DM) –File manager –DML preprocessor –DDL compiler –Catalog manager

31 Components of a DBMS u Major software components for database manager –Authorization control –Command processor –Integrity checker –Query optimizer – Transaction manager – Scheduler – Recovery manager – Buffer manager

32 Oracle Architecture u Oracle’s logical database structure –Tablespaces –Schemas –Data blocks –Extents/segments

33 Relationship between an Oracle Database, Tablespaces, and Datafiles

34 Oracle Architecture u Oracle’s physical database structure –Datafiles –Redo log files –Control files u The Oracle instance –Oracle processes and shared memory required to access information in the database

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