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McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 17 Client-Server Processing, Parallel Database Processing,

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Presentation on theme: "McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 17 Client-Server Processing, Parallel Database Processing,"— Presentation transcript:

1 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 17 Client-Server Processing, Parallel Database Processing, and Distributed Databases

2 17-2 Outline  Overview  Client-Server Database Architectures  Parallel Database Architectures  Architectures for Distributed Database Management Systems  Transparency for Distributed Database Processing  Distributed Database Processing

3 17-3 Evolution of Distributed Processing and Distributed Data  Need to share resources across a network  Timesharing (1970s)  Remote procedure calls (1980s)  Client-server computing (1990s)

4 17-4 Timesharing Network

5 17-5 Simple Resource Sharing

6 17-6 Client-Server Processing

7 17-7 Distributed processing and data

8 17-8 Motivation for Client-Server Processing  Flexibility: the ease of maintaining and adapting a system  Scalability: the ability to support scalable growth of hardware and software capacity  Interoperability: open standards that allow two or more systems to exchange and use software and data

9 17-9 Motivation for Parallel Database Processing  Scaleup: increased work that can be accomplished  Speedup: decrease in time to complete a task  Availability: increased accessibility of system  Highly available: little downtime  Fault-tolerant: no downtime

10 17-10 Motivation for Distributed Data  Data control: locate data to match an organization’s structure  Communication costs: locate data close to data usage to lower communication cost and improve performance  Reliability: increase data availability by replicating data at more than one site

11 17-11 Summary of Distributed Processing and Data

12 17-12 Client-Server Database Architectures  Client-Server Architecture is an arrangement of components (clients and servers) among computers connected by a network.  A client-server architecture supports efficient processing of messages (requests for service) between clients and servers.

13 17-13 Design Issues  Division of processing: the allocation of tasks to clients and servers.  Process management: interoperability among clients and servers and efficiently processing messages between clients and servers. Middleware: software for process management

14 17-14 Tasks to Distribute  Presentation: code to maintain the graphical user interface  Validation: code to ensure the consistency of the database and user inputs  Business logic: code to perform business functions  Workflow: code to ensure completion of business processes  Data access: code to extract data to answer queries and modify a database

15 17-15 Middleware  A software component that performs process management.  Allow clients and servers to exist on different platforms.  Allows servers to efficiently process messages from a large number of clients.  Often located on a dedicated computer.

16 17-16 Client-Server Computing with Middleware

17 17-17 Types of Middleware  Transaction-processing monitors: relieve the operating system of managing database processes  Message-oriented middleware: maintain a queue of messages  Object-request brokers: provide a high level of interoperability and message intelligence  Data access middleware: provide a uniform interface to relational and non relational data using SQL

18 17-18 Two-Tier Architecture

19 17-19 Two-Tier Architecture  A PC client and a database server interact directly to request and transfer data.  The PC client contains the user interface code.  The server contains the data access logic.  The PC client and the server share the validation and business logic.

20 17-20 Three-Tier Architecture (Middleware Server)

21 17-21 Three-Tier Architecture (Application Server)

22 17-22 Three-Tier Architecture  To improve performance, the three-tier architecture adds another server layer either by a middleware server or an application server. The additional server software can reside on a separate computer. Alternatively, the additional server software can be distributed between the database server and PC clients.

23 17-23 Multiple-Tier Architecture  A client-server architecture with more than three layers: a PC client, a backend database server, an intervening middleware server, and application servers.  Provides more flexibility on division of processing  The application servers perform business logic and manage specialized kinds of data such as images.

24 17-24 Multiple-Tier Architecture

25 17-25 Multiple-Tier Architecture with Web Server

26 17-26 Web Service Architecture  Generalize multiple-tier architectures for electronic business commerce  Supports services provided/used by automated agents  Advantages  Deploy services faster  Communicate services in standard formats  Find services easier

27 17-27 Web Service Components

28 17-28 Web Service Standards  HTTP, FTP, TCP-IP  Simple Object Access Protocol: XML message sending  Web Service Description Language (WSDL)  Universal Description, Discovery Integration  Web Services Flow Language

29 17-29 Parallel DBMS  Uses a collection of resources (processors, disks, and memory) to perform work in parallel  Divide work among resources to achieve desired performance (scaleup and speedup) and availability.  Uses high speed network, operating system, and storage system  Purchase decision involves more than parallel DBMS

30 17-30 Basic Architectures

31 17-31 Clustering Architectures

32 17-32 Design Issues  Load balancing: CN architecture most sensitive  Cache coherence: CD architecture problem  Interprocessor communication: CN architecture most sensitive  Application transparency: no knowledge about parallelism

33 17-33 Oracle Real Application Clusters

34 17-34 Oracle RAC Features  Cache fusion to synchronize cache access  Query optimizer intelligence  Connection load balancing  Automatic failover  Comprehensive administration interface

35 17-35 IBM DB2 SPF

36 17-36 IBM SPF Features  Automatic or DBA determined partitioning  Query optimizer intelligence  High scalability  Partitioned log parallelism

37 17-37 Distributed Database Architectures  DBMSs need fundamental extensions.  Underlying the extensions are a different component architecture and a different schema architecture.  Component Architecture manages distributed database requests.  Schema Architecture provides additional layers of data description.

38 17-38 Global Requests

39 17-39 Component Architecture

40 17-40 Schema Architecture I

41 17-41 Schema Architecture II

42 17-42 Distributed Database Transparency  Transparency is related to data independence.  With transparency, users can write queries with no knowledge of the distribution, and distribution changes will not cause changes to existing queries and transactions.  Without transparency, users must reference some distribution details in queries and distribution changes can lead to changes in existing queries.

43 17-43 Motivating Example

44 17-44 Fragments Based on the CustRegion Column

45 17-45 Fragments Based on the WareHouseNo Column

46 17-46 Fragmentation Transparency  Fragmentation transparency provides the highest level of data independence.  Users formulate queries and transactions without knowledge of fragments (locations, or local formats).  If fragments change, queries and transactions are not affected.

47 17-47 Location Transparency  Location transparency provides a lesser level of data independence than fragmentation transparency.  Users need to reference fragments in formulating queries and transactions.  However, knowledge of locations and local formats is not necessary.

48 17-48 Local Mapping Transparency  Local mapping transparency provides a lesser level of data independence than location transparency.  Users need to reference fragments at sites in formulating queries and transactions.  However, knowledge of local formats is not necessary.

49 17-49 Oracle Distributed Databases  Homogeneous and heterogeneous distributed databases  Emphasis on site autonomy  Provides local mapping transparency  Each site is a separately managed database.

50 17-50 Oracle Links  One way link from local to remote  Support remote access to other users’ objects  Necessary to have knowledge of remote database objects  Use synonyms and views with links to reduce remote database knowledge

51 17-51 Distributed Database Processing  Distributed data adds considerable complexity to query processing and transaction processing.  Distributed database processing involves movement of data, remote processing, and site coordination.  Performance implications sometimes cannot be hidden.

52 17-52 Distributed Query Processing  Involves both local (intra site) and global (inter site) optimization.  Multiple optimization objectives  The weighting of communication costs versus local processing costs depends on network characteristics.  There are many more possible access plans for a distributed query.

53 17-53 Distributed Transaction Processing  Distributed DBMS provides concurrency and recovery transparency.  Independently operating sites must be coordinated.  New kinds of failures exist because of the communication network.  New protocols are necessary.

54 17-54 Distributed Concurrency Control  The simplest scheme involves centralized coordination.  Centralized coordination involves the fewest messages and the simplest deadlock detection.  The number of messages can be twice as much in distributed coordination.  Primary Copy Protocol is used to reduce overhead with locking multiple copies.

55 17-55 Centralized Coordination

56 17-56 Distributed Recovery Management  Distributed DBMSs must contend with failures of communication links and sites.  Detecting failures involves coordination among sites.  The recovery manager must ensure that different parts of a partitioned network act in unison.  The protocol for distributed recovery is the two phase commit protocol (2PC).

57 17-57 Voting and Decision Phases

58 17-58 Summary  Utilizing distributed processing and data can significantly improve DBMS services but at the cost of new design challenges.  Client-server architectures provide alternatives among cost, complexity, and benefit levels.  Parallel database processing provides improved performance (speedup and scaleup) and availability.  Architectures for distributed DBMSs differ in the integration of the local databases and level of data independence.

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