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Effectively capturing the user experience Jenny Craven Research Associate, CERLIM

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Presentation on theme: "Effectively capturing the user experience Jenny Craven Research Associate, CERLIM"— Presentation transcript:

1 Effectively capturing the user experience Jenny Craven Research Associate, CERLIM

2 “…you sighted people just go click,click, click, and there’s the answer …. While I’m still looking for the first link. It’s very frustrating” (Quote from 2003)

3 Are websites becoming more accessible? 81% of websites audited failed to meet minimum requirements (WCAG A) (DRC, 2004) Automated testing revealed that only a small number of websites (3%) met the WCAG accessibility level AA (City University, 2004). 3% of the 436 online websites assessed achieved the most basic level of WCAG (Cabinet Office, 2005) 75 percent of businesses in the FTSE 100 list of companies failed to meet the minimum requirements for website accessibility (Nomensa, 2006)

4 Are websites becoming more accessible? 81% of websites audited failed to meet minimum requirements (WCAG A) (DRC, 2004) Automated testing revealed that only a small number of websites (3%) met the WCAG accessibility level AA (City University, 2004). 3% of the 436 online websites assessed achieved the most basic level of WCAG (Cabinet Office, 2005) 75 percent of businesses in the FTSE 100 list of companies failed to meet the minimum requirements for website accessibility (Nomensa, 2006)……..What’s the solution?

5 Different approaches implementing and understanding web accessibility Standards Guidelines User testing User profiles User models

6 Different approaches implementing and understanding web accessibility Standards Guidelines User testing User profiles User models

7 Different approaches implementing and understanding web accessibility Standards Guidelines User testing User profiles User models

8 User Testing: Key points to consider Objectives of the user testing Number and type of participants Time for recruiting participants Pilot testing Ethical issues

9 User Testing Methods Card sorting exercises Focus groups Online questionnaires Observation Semi-structured interviews

10 User Testing Methods Expert evaluation –Cognitive walkthrough –Heuristic evaluation Free searching/browsing Task-based evaluation –Observation –Think aloud (simultaneous and retrospective) –On-screen data capture –Pre- and post-task interviews

11 User Testing Methods Expert evaluation –Cognitive walkthrough –Heuristic evaluation Free searching/browsing Task-based evaluation –Observation –Think aloud (simultaneous and retrospective) –On-screen data capture –Pre- and post-task interviews

12 Task-based User Testing Face-to-Face –Pros: very rich data; avoids misunderstanding and misinterpretation - explains the why as well as the what and how; –Cons: time consuming; recruitment difficulties; sample size is often small; a testing environment can have an impact Remote –Pros: enables a larger sample size; often easier to recruit; participants can undertake testing using their own technology and at a time and place convenient to them –Cons: lacks the richness of face-to-face; responses may be very brief; responses can be misinterpreted – may require follow-up interviews

13 Case Studies Case Study One: Non-visual Access to the Digital Library (NoVA) Case Study Two: European Internet Accessibility Observatory (EIAO)

14 Case Study One: To compare information seeking of visually impaired and sighted users 20 sighted, 20 visually impaired users Four web-based resources Face-to-Face task-based approach Search process logged –time, keystrokes, mouse clicks etc –Think aloud protocol –Pre- and post-task questions Aim: to inform the design of accessible websites and widen access to web-based resources

15 Analysing the data Observation data and On-screen data capture: keystrokes and mouse click comparisons, mapping the search and browsing process Think aloud: Comments and feelings while undertaking the task Pre- and post-task questions: Further insight into perceptions of the site and user experience whilst undertaking the task

16 Case Study Two: To identify and rank web accessibility barriers 25 users: visual, mobility, hearing, and cognitive disabilities 16 web-based resources; 2 iterations Remote task-based approach Pre- and Post Task questions Ranking of accessibility; comments Aim: to provide a richer picture of the user experience when accessing and interacting with websites

17 Task based approach Provision of a title for each frame Task Purpose: to test the accessibility of frames Web page selected: the WCAG recommend providing a title for each frame to facilitate frame identification and navigation. The web page which was tested did not conform to this recommendation Task: participants were asked to complete two tasks using a web page with two frames, firstly to find information displayed in the right-hand frame, then to find a link to contents displayed in the left-hand frame Evaluation: following the task, participants were asked to complete an online evaluation form

18 Analysing the data Ranked responses relating to the evaluation of the website tested –User friendly –Ease of use –Problems experienced Open comments field to expand on the ranked responses given

19 The Results Results from both studies provided recommendations for: Web page design Assistive technology Staff training/User training Universal design Digital approaches Further research

20 Reporting the Results Graphs Quotes Illustrations e.g. video recordings Scenarios/Vignettes User models

21 Reporting the Results Graphs Quotes Illustrations e.g. video recordings Scenarios/Vignettes User models

22 User Models Dervin’s ‘sense making approach’ (Dillon and Watson, 1996) Kuhlthau’s model of the information search process (Kuhlthau, 1993) Ellis’ Model of Information Seeking (Wilson, 2000) Search Process Model (SPM) developed by Logan and Driscoll-Eagan (1998) Barrier Walkthrough Method (Brajnik, 2006)

23 User Models Dervin’s ‘sense making approach’ (Dillon and Watson, 1996) Kuhlthau’s model of the information search process (Kuhlthau, 1993) Ellis’ Model of Information Seeking (Wilson, 2000) Search Process Model (SPM) developed by Logan and Driscoll-Eagan (1998) Barrier Walkthrough Method (Brajnik, 2006)

24 Barrier Walkthrough Method FeatureDescription BarrierUsers cannot perceive nor understand information conveyed by an image DefectAn image that does not have accompanying text Users affectedBlind users of screen readers, users of small devices ConsequencesUsers try to look around for more explanations, spend time and effort, satisfaction is affected.

25 Barrier WalkthroughVisually Impaired Users BarrierUsers had difficulty in identifying where the information required for the task was located. DefectPage used two frames, but had not applied a title to each frame to facilitate frame identification and navigation Users affectedPeople who are blind using screen readers. ConsequencesUsers had to keep swapping back and forth between frames to try and decipher where the information they were looking for was located.

26 Conclusions User testing helps identify accessibility and usability issues experienced - beyond technical guidelines and checkpoints. User models provide clear illustrations of user behaviour and accessibility issues. Greater awareness and understanding of the need to consider a more flexible, pragmatic and holistic approach to the design of websites.

27 Thank you! Any questions?


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