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Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 1 © Imran Hussain | UMT Imran Hussain University of Management and Technology (UMT) Lecture 22 User Modeling.

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Presentation on theme: "Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 1 © Imran Hussain | UMT Imran Hussain University of Management and Technology (UMT) Lecture 22 User Modeling."— Presentation transcript:

1 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 1 © Imran Hussain | UMT Imran Hussain University of Management and Technology (UMT) Lecture 22 User Modeling Virtual University Human-Computer Interaction

2 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 2 © Imran Hussain | UMT In the Last Lecture Qualitative Research Techniques –Conducting ethnographic field studies

3 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 3 © Imran Hussain | UMT In Today’s Lecture … Personas Goals

4 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 4 © Imran Hussain | UMT Modeling

5 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 5 © Imran Hussain | UMT Why Model? Used extensively in design, development and sciences Represent complex structures and relationships Have to make sense of unstructured, raw data Good models –Emphasize features of structures or relationships they represent –De-emphasize less significant details Create models based on patterns in data –E.g., physicists on the atom

6 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 6 © Imran Hussain | UMT Usage Patterns GoalsPersonas Sets of observed behaviors that categorize modes of use ResearchModeling Use ethnographic research techniques to obtain qualitative data: user observation contextual interviews Specific and general desired outcomes of using the product Qualitative Data

7 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 7 © Imran Hussain | UMT Moving from Research to Modeling Need to synthesize patterns This leads to the systematic construction of patterns in interaction –Matching Behaviors Mental models Goals of users Personas provide this formalization

8 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 8 © Imran Hussain | UMT Personas

9 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 9 © Imran Hussain | UMT Personas A precise descriptive model of the user –What he wishes to accomplish? and why? –A.k.a. user models Personas based on motivations and behaviors of real people Personas based on behavioral data gathered from actual users through ethnographic interviews When to create –Discovered during Research phase –Formalized during Modeling phase

10 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 10 © Imran Hussain | UMT Strengths of Personas How do you successfully accommodate a variety of users? Do not design for everyone! Different needs (e.g., a car for everyone’s needs) –Person A (Minivan) –Person B (Pickup) –Person C (Sports Car) Design for specific types of individuals with specific needs These users should represent a larger set of users

11 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 11 © Imran Hussain | UMT Strengths of Personas

12 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 12 © Imran Hussain | UMT Strengths of Personas Personas are a tool for –Understanding user needs –Differentiating between types of users –Prioritizing users

13 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 13 © Imran Hussain | UMT

14 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 14 © Imran Hussain | UMT Strengths of Personas Determine what a product should do and how it should behave Communicate with stakeholders, developers and designers –Common language for discussing design decisions Build consensus and commitment to design –Common understanding through narrative structures Measure the design’s effectiveness –Can be tested on personas Contribute to other product-related efforts –Sales, marketing planning, business strategies

15 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 15 © Imran Hussain | UMT Personas and User-Centered Design Personas resolve 3 user-centered issues: –The elastic user –Self-referential design –Design edge cases

16 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 16 © Imran Hussain | UMT The Elastic User The term user causes imprecision During design decisions user becomes ‘elastic’ –Accommodating, computer-literate –Unsophisticated first-time user Persons not elastic and represent real user needs

17 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 17 © Imran Hussain | UMT Self-referential Design Developers’ mental model, skills, goals, motivations projected onto product design Manifested by a ‘cool’ product Not understood by users

18 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 18 © Imran Hussain | UMT Design Edge Cases What could possibly happen, but probably never will Personas provide reality check

19 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 19 © Imran Hussain | UMT Personas Based on Research Personas synthesized from data Primary source of data –Ethnographic interviews, contextual inquiry Supplemental sources of data –Interviews with users outside their use context –Information about users supplied by stakeholders and SMEs –Market research data (focus groups, surveys) –Market segmentation models –Data from literature reviews Every detail in personas should be traceable –From user quotes, observed behaviors

20 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 20 © Imran Hussain | UMT Personas Represented as Individuals Personas are user models represented as specific, individual humans –Represented as specific individuals –Not actual people, but synthesized Engage empathy of development team towards human target of design Allow designers and developers to role play in scenarios

21 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 21 © Imran Hussain | UMT Personas Represent Classes of Users in Context Personas identify usage patterns –Usage patterns are behavior patterns regarding the use of a particular product Patterns along with work/life-related roles define personas as user archetypes (archetype: an original model or pattern of which all things of the same type are representations or copies) Personas a.k.a. composite user archetypes –Composites assembled by clustering related usage patterns across individuals Personas and reuse –Personas context-specific Cannot be reused across products Archetypes vs. stereotypes –Stereotypes antithesis of personas Reflect biases of designer biases

22 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 22 © Imran Hussain | UMT Personas Explore Ranges of Behavior Personas do not establish an average user –Identifies different kinds of behavior in form of ranges Designers must collect a cast (collection) of personas associated with a product

23 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 23 © Imran Hussain | UMT Personas have Motivations Humans have emotions Personas capture motivations in the form of goals –Identify usage patterns –Identify why behaviors exist

24 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 24 © Imran Hussain | UMT Personas vs. User Roles A.k.a. role models User roles and user profiles –both describe relationship of users to products User roles are –an abstraction –A defined relationship between class of users and their problems

25 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 25 © Imran Hussain | UMT Problems with User Roles More difficult to identify relationships in the abstract Focus on tasks, neglect goals as organizing principle Cannot be used as a coherent tool for communication and development

26 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 26 © Imran Hussain | UMT Personas vs. User Profiles User profile –Usually a ‘brief biographical sketch’ Name Demographic data Fictional paragraph Personas derived from ethnographic data

27 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 27 © Imran Hussain | UMT Personas vs. Market Segments Market segments –Based on demographics and distribution channels Personas –User behavior and goals

28 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 28 © Imran Hussain | UMT User Personas vs. Non-user Personas Product definition error is to target people who review, purchase or administer the product ‘IT Managers’ better served if real end user served Cater for non-user personas where necessary –Enterprise systems

29 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 29 © Imran Hussain | UMT Goals

30 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 30 © Imran Hussain | UMT Goals and Personas Personas contain sets of behaviors Goals drive behaviors Personas without goals –Communication tool [useful] –Design tool [useless] Goals should determine functions of product Function and Behavior of Product must address Goals via Tasks

31 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 31 © Imran Hussain | UMT Goals Motivate Usage Patterns Goals motivate people to behave in a certain way Goals provide answer to –Why personas use a product? –How personas desire to use a product? Goals serve as shorthand (in designer’s mind) for complex behaviors

32 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 32 © Imran Hussain | UMT Goals Must Be Inferred from Qualitative Data Can’t ask a person what his goals are directly –He can’t articulate them –He won’t be accurate –He won’t be honest Goals constructed from: –Observed behaviors –Answers to questions –Non-verbal cues –Clues from environment Goals expressed succinctly –Each goal expressed as a single sentence

33 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 33 © Imran Hussain | UMT Types of Goals … User Goals Non-User Goals

34 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 34 © Imran Hussain | UMT User Goals … Life goals Experience Goals End Goals

35 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 35 © Imran Hussain | UMT Life Goals Reflect personal aspirations of user Go beyond the context of product being designed Examples –Be the best at what I do –Get onto the fast track and win that big promotion –Learn all there is to know about this field –Be a paragon of ethics, modesty and trust Not directly related to design of interface Addressing life goals creates fanatically loyal users

36 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 36 © Imran Hussain | UMT Experience Goals Product-related (general) How someone wants to feel when using a product People desire to be treated with dignity and respect and supported Examples –Don’t feel stupid –Don’t make mistakes –Feel competent and confident –Have fun

37 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 37 © Imran Hussain | UMT End Goals Product-related (specific) Expectation’s of the tangible outcomes of using a product Examples –Find the best price –Finalize the press release –Process the customer’s order –Create a numerical model of the business

38 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 38 © Imran Hussain | UMT Combining End Goals and Experience Goals End goals have more appeal to –Business people –Programmers Most products satisfy end goals and not the experience goals Satisfying only end goals  users not happy Satisfying only experience goals  product becomes a toy

39 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 39 © Imran Hussain | UMT Non-User Goals Must be considered, but not at expense of user goals Types … –Customer Goals –Corporate Goals –Technical Goals

40 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 40 © Imran Hussain | UMT Customer Goals Consumer products –Concerned about happiness and safety (parents, relatives, friends) Enterprise products –Concerned about security, ease of maintenance, ease of customization (IT managers)

41 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 41 © Imran Hussain | UMT Corporate Goals Businesses and organizations have goals for product Enable designers to remain focused Examples –Increase profit –Increase market share –Defeat the competition –Use resources more efficiently –Offer more products or services

42 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 42 © Imran Hussain | UMT Technical Goals Programmer’s goals Ease task of software creation Often take precedence over user’s goals Examples –Save memory –Run in a browser –Safeguard data integrity –Increase program execution efficiency –Use “cool” technology or features –Maintain consistency across platforms Users do not care about technical goals (e.g., type of databases used)

43 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 43 © Imran Hussain | UMT Successful Products Meet User Goals First Good products –Serve a purpose in a context for people –Key tool in designing is personas –Personas are specific people working towards specific purposes (goals) Goals of real people using product are always more important than: –A corporation –IT manager Users will try to meet business goals –But not at expense of their dignity

44 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 44 © Imran Hussain | UMT Meeting user goals Successful products meet user goals Don’t make me (user) think –i.e. don’t make em’ feel stupid

45 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 45 © Imran Hussain | UMT A user’s most important goal is always to retain his human dignity (Don’t make the user feel stupid) Today’s digital products degrade human beings

46 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 46 © Imran Hussain | UMT Constructing Personas

47 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 47 © Imran Hussain | UMT Constructing Personas Personas derived from patterns observed during interviews and observations Well-developed personas include information about –Goals –Attitudes –Work or activity flow –Typical workday –Use environment –Skills and skill levels –Current solutions and frustrations –Relevant relationships with others

48 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 48 © Imran Hussain | UMT Process for Constructing Personas … 1.Revisit the persona hypothesis. 2.Map interview subjects to behavioral variables. 3.Identify significant behavior patterns. 4.Synthesize characteristics and relevant goals. 5.Check for completeness. 6.Develop narratives. 7.Designate persona types.

49 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 49 © Imran Hussain | UMT Revisit the persona hypothesis Compare patterns in data with assumptions in persona hypothesis List behavioral variables Behavioral variables in enterprise applications related to job roles –15 to 30 behavioral variables per role Modify assumptions if at variance with data

50 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 50 © Imran Hussain | UMT Map interview subjects to behavioral variables Map each interviewee against each applicable variable range Place interviewee on a range according to a scale Clusters indicate behavior patterns Behavioral range a.k.a. behavioral axis

51 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 51 © Imran Hussain | UMT Map interview subjects to behavioral variables

52 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 52 © Imran Hussain | UMT Identify significant behavior patterns Note clusters of subjects across multiple ranges Set of interviewees that cluster in 6-8 variables possibly represent a persona based on pattern May have 2-3 such patterns

53 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 53 © Imran Hussain | UMT Synthesize relevant characteristics and relevant goals Synthesize details from data List characteristics of behavior in brief bullet points Add little description of personalities Only first and last names of persona should be fictional Add some demographic info –E.g., age, location, income From this point on, refer to persona by assigned name List goals by inference from behavior data

54 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 54 © Imran Hussain | UMT Check for completeness Check persona characteristics and goals for any gaps Eliminate redundancies –E.g., 2 personas only varying in location –Each persona must vary from another in at least one behavior

55 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 55 © Imran Hussain | UMT Constructing Personas Well-developed personas include information about –Goals –Attitudes –Work or activity flow –Typical workday –Use environment –Skills and skill levels –Current solutions and frustrations –Relevant relationships with others

56 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 56 © Imran Hussain | UMT Develop narratives Introduce third person narrative to convey persona’s attitudes, needs and problems Persona narrative < 1-2 pages Narrative –Introduces persona in terms of job or lifestyle –Sketches a day in his life, including interests and concerns related to product Choose photographs of persona

57 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 57 © Imran Hussain | UMT Designate persona types Each interface designed for single, primary persona Prioritize personas

58 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 58 © Imran Hussain | UMT

59 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 59 © Imran Hussain | UMT

60 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 60 © Imran Hussain | UMT Persona types Primary –Primary target for design of interface Secondary –Secondary personas per interface: 0 to 2 Supplemental Customer Served Negative

61 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 61 © Imran Hussain | UMT Process for Constructing Personas 1.Revisit the persona hypothesis. 2.Map interview subjects to behavioral variables. 3.Identify significant behavior patterns. 4.Synthesize characteristics and relevant goals. 5.Check for completeness. 6.Develop narratives. 7.Designate persona types.


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