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Imran Hussain University of Management and Technology (UMT)

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1 Imran Hussain University of Management and Technology (UMT)
Virtual University Human-Computer Interaction Lecture 22 User Modeling Imran Hussain University of Management and Technology (UMT) 1

2 In the Last Lecture Qualitative Research Techniques
Conducting ethnographic field studies

3 In Today’s Lecture … Personas Goals

4 Modeling

5 Why Model? Used extensively in design, development and sciences
Represent complex structures and relationships Have to make sense of unstructured, raw data Good models Emphasize features of structures or relationships they represent De-emphasize less significant details Create models based on patterns in data E.g., physicists on the atom

6 Research Modeling Qualitative Data Usage Patterns Goals Personas
Use ethnographic research techniques to obtain qualitative data: user observation contextual interviews Qualitative Data Usage Patterns Goals Personas Sets of observed behaviors that categorize modes of use Specific and general desired outcomes of using the product

7 Moving from Research to Modeling
Need to synthesize patterns This leads to the systematic construction of patterns in interaction Matching Behaviors Mental models Goals of users Personas provide this formalization

8 Personas

9 Personas A precise descriptive model of the user
What he wishes to accomplish? and why? A.k.a. user models Personas based on motivations and behaviors of real people Personas based on behavioral data gathered from actual users through ethnographic interviews When to create Discovered during Research phase Formalized during Modeling phase

10 Strengths of Personas How do you successfully accommodate a variety of users? Do not design for everyone! Different needs (e.g., a car for everyone’s needs) Person A (Minivan) Person B (Pickup) Person C (Sports Car) Design for specific types of individuals with specific needs These users should represent a larger set of users

11 Strengths of Personas

12 Strengths of Personas Personas are a tool for Understanding user needs
Differentiating between types of users Prioritizing users


14 Strengths of Personas Determine what a product should do and how it should behave Communicate with stakeholders, developers and designers Common language for discussing design decisions Build consensus and commitment to design Common understanding through narrative structures Measure the design’s effectiveness Can be tested on personas Contribute to other product-related efforts Sales, marketing planning, business strategies

15 Personas and User-Centered Design
Personas resolve 3 user-centered issues: The elastic user Self-referential design Design edge cases

16 The Elastic User The term user causes imprecision
During design decisions user becomes ‘elastic’ Accommodating, computer-literate Unsophisticated first-time user Persons not elastic and represent real user needs

17 Self-referential Design
Developers’ mental model, skills, goals, motivations projected onto product design Manifested by a ‘cool’ product Not understood by users

18 Design Edge Cases What could possibly happen, but probably never will
Personas provide reality check

19 Personas Based on Research
Personas synthesized from data Primary source of data Ethnographic interviews, contextual inquiry Supplemental sources of data Interviews with users outside their use context Information about users supplied by stakeholders and SMEs Market research data (focus groups, surveys) Market segmentation models Data from literature reviews Every detail in personas should be traceable From user quotes, observed behaviors

20 Personas Represented as Individuals
Personas are user models represented as specific, individual humans Represented as specific individuals Not actual people, but synthesized Engage empathy of development team towards human target of design Allow designers and developers to role play in scenarios

21 Personas Represent Classes of Users in Context
Personas identify usage patterns Usage patterns are behavior patterns regarding the use of a particular product Patterns along with work/life-related roles define personas as user archetypes (archetype: an original model or pattern of which all things of the same type are representations or copies) Personas a.k.a. composite user archetypes Composites assembled by clustering related usage patterns across individuals Personas and reuse Personas context-specific Cannot be reused across products Archetypes vs. stereotypes Stereotypes antithesis of personas Reflect biases of designer biases

22 Personas Explore Ranges of Behavior
Personas do not establish an average user Identifies different kinds of behavior in form of ranges Designers must collect a cast (collection) of personas associated with a product

23 Personas have Motivations
Humans have emotions Personas capture motivations in the form of goals Identify usage patterns Identify why behaviors exist

24 Personas vs. User Roles A.k.a. role models
User roles and user profiles both describe relationship of users to products User roles are an abstraction A defined relationship between class of users and their problems

25 Problems with User Roles
More difficult to identify relationships in the abstract Focus on tasks, neglect goals as organizing principle Cannot be used as a coherent tool for communication and development

26 Personas vs. User Profiles
Usually a ‘brief biographical sketch’ Name Demographic data Fictional paragraph Personas derived from ethnographic data

27 Personas vs. Market Segments
Based on demographics and distribution channels Personas User behavior and goals

28 User Personas vs. Non-user Personas
Product definition error is to target people who review, purchase or administer the product ‘IT Managers’ better served if real end user served Cater for non-user personas where necessary Enterprise systems

29 Goals

30 Goals and Personas Personas contain sets of behaviors
Goals drive behaviors Personas without goals Communication tool [useful] Design tool [useless] Goals should determine functions of product Function and Behavior of Product must address Goals via Tasks

31 Goals Motivate Usage Patterns
Goals motivate people to behave in a certain way Goals provide answer to Why personas use a product? How personas desire to use a product? Goals serve as shorthand (in designer’s mind) for complex behaviors

32 Goals Must Be Inferred from Qualitative Data
Can’t ask a person what his goals are directly He can’t articulate them He won’t be accurate He won’t be honest Goals constructed from: Observed behaviors Answers to questions Non-verbal cues Clues from environment Goals expressed succinctly Each goal expressed as a single sentence

33 Types of Goals … User Goals Non-User Goals

34 User Goals … Life goals Experience Goals End Goals

35 Life Goals Reflect personal aspirations of user
Go beyond the context of product being designed Examples Be the best at what I do Get onto the fast track and win that big promotion Learn all there is to know about this field Be a paragon of ethics, modesty and trust Not directly related to design of interface Addressing life goals creates fanatically loyal users

36 Experience Goals Product-related (general)
How someone wants to feel when using a product People desire to be treated with dignity and respect and supported Examples Don’t feel stupid Don’t make mistakes Feel competent and confident Have fun

37 End Goals Product-related (specific)
Expectation’s of the tangible outcomes of using a product Examples Find the best price Finalize the press release Process the customer’s order Create a numerical model of the business

38 Combining End Goals and Experience Goals
End goals have more appeal to Business people Programmers Most products satisfy end goals and not the experience goals Satisfying only end goals  users not happy Satisfying only experience goals  product becomes a toy

39 Non-User Goals Must be considered, but not at expense of user goals
Types … Customer Goals Corporate Goals Technical Goals

40 Customer Goals Consumer products Enterprise products
Concerned about happiness and safety (parents, relatives, friends) Enterprise products Concerned about security, ease of maintenance, ease of customization (IT managers)

41 Corporate Goals Businesses and organizations have goals for product
Enable designers to remain focused Examples Increase profit Increase market share Defeat the competition Use resources more efficiently Offer more products or services

42 Technical Goals Programmer’s goals Ease task of software creation
Often take precedence over user’s goals Examples Save memory Run in a browser Safeguard data integrity Increase program execution efficiency Use “cool” technology or features Maintain consistency across platforms Users do not care about technical goals (e.g., type of databases used)

43 Successful Products Meet User Goals First
Good products Serve a purpose in a context for people Key tool in designing is personas Personas are specific people working towards specific purposes (goals) Goals of real people using product are always more important than: A corporation IT manager Users will try to meet business goals But not at expense of their dignity

44 Meeting user goals Successful products meet user goals
Don’t make me (user) think i.e. don’t make em’ feel stupid

45 A user’s most important goal is always to retain his human dignity (Don’t make the user feel stupid) Today’s digital products degrade human beings

46 Constructing Personas

47 Constructing Personas
Personas derived from patterns observed during interviews and observations Well-developed personas include information about Goals Attitudes Work or activity flow Typical workday Use environment Skills and skill levels Current solutions and frustrations Relevant relationships with others

48 Process for Constructing Personas …
Revisit the persona hypothesis. Map interview subjects to behavioral variables. Identify significant behavior patterns. Synthesize characteristics and relevant goals. Check for completeness. Develop narratives. Designate persona types.

49 Revisit the persona hypothesis
Compare patterns in data with assumptions in persona hypothesis List behavioral variables Behavioral variables in enterprise applications related to job roles 15 to 30 behavioral variables per role Modify assumptions if at variance with data

50 Map interview subjects to behavioral variables
Map each interviewee against each applicable variable range Place interviewee on a range according to a scale Clusters indicate behavior patterns Behavioral range a.k.a. behavioral axis

51 Map interview subjects to behavioral variables

52 Identify significant behavior patterns
Note clusters of subjects across multiple ranges Set of interviewees that cluster in 6-8 variables possibly represent a persona based on pattern May have 2-3 such patterns

53 Synthesize relevant characteristics and relevant goals
Synthesize details from data List characteristics of behavior in brief bullet points Add little description of personalities Only first and last names of persona should be fictional Add some demographic info E.g., age, location, income From this point on, refer to persona by assigned name List goals by inference from behavior data

54 Check for completeness
Check persona characteristics and goals for any gaps Eliminate redundancies E.g., 2 personas only varying in location Each persona must vary from another in at least one behavior

55 Constructing Personas
Well-developed personas include information about Goals Attitudes Work or activity flow Typical workday Use environment Skills and skill levels Current solutions and frustrations Relevant relationships with others

56 Develop narratives Introduce third person narrative to convey persona’s attitudes, needs and problems Persona narrative < 1-2 pages Narrative Introduces persona in terms of job or lifestyle Sketches a day in his life, including interests and concerns related to product Choose photographs of persona

57 Designate persona types
Each interface designed for single, primary persona Prioritize personas



60 Persona types Primary Secondary Supplemental Customer Served Negative
Primary target for design of interface Secondary Secondary personas per interface: 0 to 2 Supplemental Customer Served Negative

61 Process for Constructing Personas
Revisit the persona hypothesis. Map interview subjects to behavioral variables. Identify significant behavior patterns. Synthesize characteristics and relevant goals. Check for completeness. Develop narratives. Designate persona types.

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