2Native Americans in 1492 (North of Mexico) in 1900 In 2000 1 million? 7 million? 12 million?in 1900250,000 in US (out of 76 million = 0.3%)In 20004.1 million (out of 281 million = 1.5%)2.5 million reporting only American Indian or Alaska native1.6 million reporting American Indian or Alaska native + other race(s)
8Guale Timucua Apalachee Calusa Juan Ponce de Léon Hernando de Soto CoosaJuan Ponce de LéonHernando de SotoRene de Goulaine deLaudonnièreFranciscan missionariesCofitachequiGualeMabila(St. Augustine)TimucuaApalacheeCalusaSource: University of West Florida
9Consequences of Spanish invasions Depopulation due to disease and warUp to 75% of native population diedConsolidation into new confederaciesCreeks, Chocktaw, Chickasaw, Cherokee, Catawba
22Main transformationsDisease -> population decline -> consolidation and formation of new groupsTrade -> geographic relocation, new alliances, new tools, crops, and animalsColonization -> resistance and accommodation
23Source: Norton Anthology of American Literature, 8th ed.