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The Indians’ New World 1. Native Americans in 1492 (North of Mexico) – 1 million? 7 million? 12 million? in 1900 – 250,000 in US (out of 76 million =

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Presentation on theme: "The Indians’ New World 1. Native Americans in 1492 (North of Mexico) – 1 million? 7 million? 12 million? in 1900 – 250,000 in US (out of 76 million ="— Presentation transcript:

1 The Indians’ New World 1

2 Native Americans in 1492 (North of Mexico) – 1 million? 7 million? 12 million? in 1900 – 250,000 in US (out of 76 million = 0.3%) In 2000 – 4.1 million (out of 281 million = 1.5%) 2.5 million reporting only American Indian or Alaska native 1.6 million reporting American Indian or Alaska native + other race(s) 2

3 The ‘Columbian Exchange’ 3

4 Last week: ‘Indians’ and ‘Native Americans’ Diversity of native cultures Pre-contact life in Southwest and Eastern Woodlands 4

5 5

6 Taíno Source: Yale University Libraries 6

7 Hispaniola Source: Yale University Libraries 7

8 Source: University of West Florida Timucua Apalachee Guale Calusa Cofitachequi Coosa Mabila (St. Augustine) 8 Juan Ponce de Léon Hernando de Soto Rene de Goulaine de Laudonnière Franciscan missionaries

9 Consequences of Spanish invasions Depopulation due to disease and war – Up to 75% of native population died Consolidation into new confederacies – Creeks, Chocktaw, Chickasaw, Cherokee, Catawba 9

10 10

11 Source: U. Oregon Mapping History Project 11 From the 1500s, European fishermen interacted with Beothuks, Montagnais, Micmacs Jacques Cartier 1534

12 The fur trade Deer, caribou, beaver 12

13 13 Iroquois Samuel de Champlain->Québec (1608). Henry Hudson. Mohawk and Mahicans. « Mourning Wars » Manhattan -> New Amsterdam -> New York

14 14 1585, 1587: Roanoke Island 1607: Jamestown, Virginia 1610-1614 & 1622-32: wars between the English and the Powhatans

15 Plymouth 15 1616: major epidemic destroyed 90% of native population along the coast 1620: Puritans arrived in Plymouth, Massachusetts 1630: more Puritans arrived 1633: another epidemic

16 Colonial Expansion 16

17 Pequot massacre (1637) 17

18 John Eliot and the ‘praying towns’ 18

19 Metacom’s War (1675-76) 19

20 Source: Mapping History Project, U. Oregon. 20

21 Source: Mapping History Project, U. Oregon. 21

22 Main transformations Disease -> population decline -> consolidation and formation of new groups Trade -> geographic relocation, new alliances, new tools, crops, and animals Colonization -> resistance and accommodation 22

23 Source: Norton Anthology of American Literature, 8th ed. 23


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