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PROBLEM BASED LEARNING IN ENGINEERING: HOW TO MAKE IT WORK Erik de Graaff Delft University of Technology, Aalborg University UNESCO Chair in Problem Based.

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Presentation on theme: "PROBLEM BASED LEARNING IN ENGINEERING: HOW TO MAKE IT WORK Erik de Graaff Delft University of Technology, Aalborg University UNESCO Chair in Problem Based."— Presentation transcript:

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2 PROBLEM BASED LEARNING IN ENGINEERING: HOW TO MAKE IT WORK Erik de Graaff Delft University of Technology, Aalborg University UNESCO Chair in Problem Based Learning

3 PROBLEM BASED LEARNING IN ENGINEERING: HOW TO MAKE IT WORK The origin of PBL PBL in Medicine McMaster – Maastricht Paradigm shift: from teaching to facilitation PBL in Engineering The Aalborg model Management of Change

4 Assignment Each person has to come up with one advantage of PBL Share the ideas in groups of 3-5 persons Choose a top 3

5 4 McMaster, 68 Linkoping 72 Roskilde 72 and Aalborg University 74 Maastricht 72 Problems constitute the stimulus for learning Working on real life problems promotes the development of problem solving skills Self directed small student groups Teachers are facilitators/guides Problem orientation Interdisciplinarity Exemplary learning Participant directed Teams or group work Newcastle 76 In the beginning

6 The early history of PBL Don Woods coins the words PBL for his teaching in a chemistry class in McMaster’s university by the end of the sixties. PBL chosen as the didactic method for the development of a new medical curriculum at McMaster’s university (1969). Introduction of PBL in Maastricht, also for the development of a new medical curriculum. Implementation of POBL in Engineering Education in Roskilde and Aalborg in Denmark

7 Different versions of PBL ProblemBasedLearning Project Phenomenon PBL BasedLearning OrganizedLearning PracticeOrientedLearning

8 Problem based learning (PBL) PBL builds on pedagogic traditions like: Maria Montessori: my playing is my learning Jerôme Bruner: learning by discovery William Killpatrick: whole hearted learning Carl Rogers: student centered learning The Harvard method: case based learning

9 PBL Global Network 8

10 9 Problem based Project based / organised Contextual learning

11 10 Participant directed Team based learning

12 11 Theory-practice Interdisciplinary learning Exemplary learning

13 Characteristics of PBL Thematic curriculum structure Integration of knowledge and skills Integration of different domains Focus on the learning process Cooperative learning in small groups Students responsible for their own learning

14 PBL entails: A paradigm shift From teaching to learning From learning content to study activities

15 Paradigm shift in educational design: form follows function Educational functions Insight in the relationship between technology and society The development of a scientific attitude of critical reflection The development of a sense responsibility and an independent personality Acquisition of professional knowledge and skills Educational form Active participation in cooperating groups, dealing with insecurity and learning to take responsibility Working on practice oriented projects and analyzing theoretically oriented problems Critical reflection on performance

16 Rationale for PBP: Bales’ pyramid of learning

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18 17 The central role of learning objectives The price of knowledge

19 The Maastricht perspective PBL Modules: lasting six weeks containing just some cases integrating knowledge form different disciplines Tutorial Groups self-directed learning Eight students in a group cooperation and teamwork Facilitated by a tutor: guiding the process without taking the lead guarding quality without interfering in the process A Curriculum based on thematic modules

20 Teacher roles in a PBL curriculum The teacher as: Expert Facilitator De Graaff & Frijns, 1993 Designing a stimulating environment for learning Management of the learning process, including evaluation Stimulates students to define their own learning goals and to direct their own learning process

21 WHAT IS A PROBLEM? A Difficulty Something complicated A Puzzle, a Riddle A Challenge An Assignment In Engineering: A project

22 A PBL CASE FROM MEDICINE Woman, 22 years old, not married, lives with her parents, she is a nursing aide in an old peoples home, youngest of 5 children. The G.P. sees her every now and then with complaints of hyperhidrosis*. Complaint now: since three days sick and vomiting, everything comes back. Stools normal, no abdominal pains. She is not feeling very ill, on the other hand she is not feeling able to work. When asked whether there has been anything special recently, the patient relates that for three weeks she has been in charge of a nursing department of the old peoples home, because the person normally in charge went on holidays. "The old people looked down at me as a youngster, they did not accept any instruction from me". The complaints started directly after this period, when the head of the department had returned from her holiday (three days ago). You don't notice any abnormality in her physical appearance. family physician practice * Hyperhidrosis: excessive sweating

23 The seven step procedure of problem solving 1.Clarify terms 2.Define the problem 3.Analyze the problem 4.Arrange explanations 5.Formulate learning goals and allocate tasks 6.Search for additional information 7.Report and test new information

24 Video: Pitfalls of tutoring

25 PBL in Engineering: the Aalborg Model Students learn from working on real life problems as a team of engineers: Problem Based Project Organized Cooperation in small groups

26 Dimensions of the Educational Process inputthroughputoutput situation teacherfocus problem discipine workplace classroom professional didactic student teacher product competence frontal lbd

27 Dimensions of the Educational Process inputthroughputoutput situation teacherfocus problem discipine workplace classroom professional didactic student teacher product competence PBL POL

28 Differences between Projects and PBL Type of problem Time per problem Number of students Role of the teachers Expected results Assessment a real life task broad range small groups (4-8) expert a finished product product and process phenomenon about one week small groups (6-12) process facilitator learning results individual test of learning results ProjectsPBL

29 Results of a Survey among employers of engineering graduates (Ingeniøren, 2008) Questions: Are there one or more institutions which you find particular good at developing engineering education according to the needs of society and companies?

30 Overall assessment of Danish Engineering Institutions by companies (Ingeniøren, 2008)

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33 Duration rates for Danish universities, 2007, Official statistiscs

34 The tripod of successful innovation Vision on teaching and learning Vision on Man and Society Educational Philosophy PBL Vision on the profession A question of balance

35 Curriculum design: the pie-model

36 Mix models – 5 modes Savin-Baden and Major: Foundations of PBL, Open University Press, 2004 Single module approach – parallel system Patchwork PBL or shoestrings Year 1 pbl Lecture- based pbl Year 2 Lecture- based pbl Year 3 Lecture- based pbl pbl

37 Mix models – 5 modes The funnel - or foundation approach The two strand approach Year 1PBL modules Mixed modules Year 2PBL modules Mixed modules Year 1 Lecture-based learning Year 2 Problem-solving – discipline projects Year 3 Problem based learning – problem projects

38 Active learning Traditional curriculum lecturesStudents individual work Assessment Active learning curriculum LecturesTeam workAssessment 37

39 Mix models – 5 modes The integrated and complex approach Year 1 Problem and project 1 Problem and project 2 Problem and project 3 Year 2 Problem and project 4 Problem and project 5 Year 3 Problem and project 6 Problem and project 7

40 Managing change: Strategies for implementing PBL Chin and Benne (1985) distinguish three types of strategies that can be applied in changing an organization: – Empirical-rational strategies – Normative-re-educative strategies – Power-coercive strategies

41 Research support for PBL Learning Motivation and engagement Graff and Cowdroy 1997, Thomas 2000, Kolmos and Du, 2006 Deep learning Biggs 2003 Self-satisfaction and meaningfulness Savin-Baden 2000, Du 2006a Skills Professional Skills improvement Dochy et al 2001, Frenay et al 2007 Process skills Kolmos 1996, 1999, Du 2006, Kolmos and Du 2006, Croshwaite, 2006, Complex knowledge and identity Interdisciplinary knowledge and skills Kjaersdam 1994, Graaff and Kolmos 2003 Professional identity and responsibility Hmelo and Evensen 2000, Kolmos 2006, Du 2006a, 2006b Management Higher retention and duration on time Kolmos and Du

42 Complex knowledge and identity Interdisciplinary knowledge and skills Kjaersdam 1994, Graaff and Kolmos 2003 Creativity and designing skills Schrøder 2006 Professional identity and responsibility Hmelo and Evensen 2000, Kolmos 2006, Du 2006a, 2006b Management Higher retention and duration on time Kolmos and Du 2008 Regional development PBL support entrepreneurship and relation to companies Lundvall et al

43 Factors in Managing Complex Change confusionconsensusskillsincentivesresourcesaction plan = ++++ resistancevisionconsensusskillsresourcesaction plan = ++++ = visionconsensusskillsincentivesresourcesaction planchange = visionconsensusskillsincentivesresourcespointless ++++ frustrationvisionconsensusskillsincentivesaction plan = ++++ sabotagevisionskillsincentivesresourcesaction plan = ++++ after: Thousand &Villa 1995 anxietyvisionconsensusincentivesresourcesaction plan = ++++

44 Key Features in the Success of PBL Students responsible for their own learning process A clear purpose of all learning activities Sufficient attention for Communication Skills Balanced support from Technical experts to overcome knowledge barriers

45 44 Re-design of Higher Education

46 Assignment Each person has to come up with one advantage of PBL Share the ideas in groups of 3-5 persons Choose a top 3 What is the difference ?

47 Any Questions ? Can I get an ice cream ? Are we going to the zoo ? When is Mama coming back?

48 39e SEFI Annual Conference 2011, Lisbon, September, 2011, Lisbon, Portugal REEN 2011 Madrid Oct. 3-6


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