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Strategi dan Metode Pembelajaran dalam Pendidikan Dokter Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih Bagian Pendidikan Kedokteran.

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Presentation on theme: "Strategi dan Metode Pembelajaran dalam Pendidikan Dokter Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih Bagian Pendidikan Kedokteran."— Presentation transcript:

1 Strategi dan Metode Pembelajaran dalam Pendidikan Dokter Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih Bagian Pendidikan Kedokteran

2 The importance of Health Profession Education …. Anyone with responsibility for educating nurses, midwifes, residents, and physicians should be skilled and well informed about health profession education – as preparing these learners to provide a safe, humane and effective care for the members of our society is a heavy responsibility

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4 The Learning Pyramid Teach others Lecture Discussion group Demonstration Audiovisual Reading Practice by doing 5% 10% 20% 30% 50% 75% 80% Average Retention Rate National Training Laboratories, Bethel, Maine, USA

5 Doctor How do you ensure that you will produce such a doctor? How do ensure that your doctor achieves actual competencies? What do you claim your doctor should be able to do?

6 Assumptions of Learners based on Pedagogical Model The need to know (exam) The learner’s self-concept (dependent personality) The role of experience (little) Readiness to learn (depends on teacher) Orientation to learning (subject-centred, subject content) Motivation (external)

7 What is wrong with Pedagogical Model? Pedagogy is the art and science of teaching children – based on assumptions about teaching learning between 7 th -12 th Century in Monastic School of Europe

8 What is Learning? Learning is a change in human capability, which can be retained, and not due to the process of growth (Gagne, 1965) Education for Capability Competency-based Education

9 Andragogical Model of Adult Learning 1. The Need to Know (important for life) 2. The Learner’s Self Concept (independent) 3. The Role of the Learner’s Experience (important – self identity) 4. Readiness to Learn (ready) 5. Orientation to Learning (case, problem, real life)

10 Constructivism Theory of Learning Merril (1991) in Smorgansbord (1997) propose the assumptions of constructivism as follows: Knowledge is constructed from experience Learning is a personal interpretation of the world Learning is an active process in which meaning is developed on the basis of experience

11 Constructivism Theory of Learning Conceptual growths comes from the negotiation of meaning, the sharing of multiple perspectives and the changing of our internal representations through collaborative learning Learning should be situated in realistic settings; testing should be integrated with the task and not a separate activity

12 Clinical Reasoning Organizing memory (structure) Pattern recognition Networks Context information Information retrieval

13 Illness Script Theory Novice Intermediate Expert

14 Independent Learning A process in which: * individuals take the initiative with or without the help of Others * in diagnosing their learning needs, formulating learning goals, * identifying human and material resources * for learning, choosing and implementing appropriate learning strategies and evaluating learning outcomes (Knowles, 1975)

15 Metode Pembelajaran Mutakhir berdasarkan Teori Konstruktivisme Teori Ilness Script Teori Belajar Orang Dewasa

16 The Learning Pyramid Teach others Lecture Discussion group Demonstration Audiovisual Reading Practice by doing 5% 10% 20% 30% 50% 75% 80% Average Retention Rate National Training Laboratories, Bethel, Maine, USA

17 Participation andResponsibility of teacher Participation and responsibility of student Teaching orientation Learning orientation Didactic Lecture Self-study The Continuum of Teacher-Student Centred

18 Participation andResponsibility of teacher Participation and responsibility of student Teaching orientation Learning orientation Didactic Lecture Self-study The Continuum of Teacher-Student Centred

19 1. Problem-based Learning

20 The Continuum of PBL 1. Theoretical learning 2. Problem-orientated learning 3. Problem-assisted learning 4. Problem-solving learning 5. Problem-focused learning 6. Problem-based mixed approach 7. Problem-initiated learning 8. Problem-centred learning 9. Problem-centred discovery learning 10. Problem-based learning 11. Task-based learning

21 The Continuum of PBL (1) SymbolTerminologyDescriptionExample Theoretical Learning Information provided about theory Traditional lecture Problem-orientated Learning Practical Information provided Lecture with practical information Problem-assisted Learning Problem solving related to specific examples Case discussions and some activities in practical classes Rul (Th) Rul (PT) Rul (Th) Eg

22 The Continuum of PBL (2) SymbolTerminologyDescriptionExample Problem-focused learning Information provided followed by a problem, principles later Overview lecture, problem and study guide Problem-based mixed approach CombinationStudent can choose Problem-initiated Learning The problem is a trigger at the beginning Patient problem to interest students’ learning Rul (Th) Rul Eg Rul (Th) Eg Rul

23 The Continuum of PBL (3) SymbolTerminologyDescriptionExample Problem-centred learning Problems used to introduce principles and rules A series of problems followed by information Problem-centred discovery learning Presenting the problems, followed by opportunities to derive principles Students derive principles from assignment Problem-based learning Development of principles and generalisation Problems presented and generalise to other setting Rul (sp) Rul (sp) Eg Rul (G)

24 The Continuum of PBL (4) SymbolTerminologyDescriptionExample Task-based Learning The problem is the real world Tasks undertaken by health professionals as problems Rul Eg (T)

25 2. Skills Lab Method

26 3. Experiential Learning

27 4. Lectures

28 5. Praktikum Lab

29 6. Kunjungan Lapangan

30 7. Community-based education

31 8. Web-based Learning

32 9. Patient-based learning

33 10. Project-based Learning

34 11. Virtual Learning

35 12. Collaborative Learning

36 13. Adaptive Learning

37 14. Learning Contract

38 15. Case-study

39 16. Practice-based Learning

40 The Learning Pyramid Teach others Lecture Discussion group Demonstration Audiovisual Reading Practice by doing 5% 10% 20% 30% 50% 75% 80% Average Retention Rate National Training Laboratories, Bethel, Maine, USA

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42 Terimakasih Selamat Bekerja


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