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Managing art organizations – creative people Annukka Jyrämä.

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1 Managing art organizations – creative people Annukka Jyrämä

2 Assignment Go together with your group out and take a couple of pictures of what you think is creative Send them to me Come back to the class 9.30 ◦ City ◦ Creativity ◦ Team assignment

3 Leading clever people Goffee, Rob; Jones, Gareth

4 Introduction and aim of the article This article aims at studying leadership and management of people who usually don’t accept to be managed A big number of companies ’competitive advantage relies on the ability to create an economy driven by ideas and know-how. ◦ Most of the top executives are aware of this and try to attract the human resource adapted to their needs ◦ Those interesting profiles are rare, become more demanding and generally refuse to be led.

5 Methodology Use a sociological approach Data from case study, structured interview The author spoke with more than 100 leaders and their « clever people » from companies such as KPMG, Roche and Crédit Suisse.

6 Results: the clever people Interdependence of need between the « clever people » and the organization Paradox about the clever people: ◦ Clever people feel they belong to an external professional community ◦ therefore have a feeling of indifference towards the organization’s hierarchy and bureaucracy ◦ However, they like to be aware of the organization’s key development projects ◦ Clever people desire to have instant access to anyone in the organization’s hierarchy

7 Results: the organization The organization has to handle the « organization rain » which are the « rules and politics associated with any big budget activities » ◦ Distribute the budget fairly; Protect clever people from organization’s rain when they need it; ◦ Minimizing the rain by simplifying norms and rules The organization has to diversify the risk – « put the eggs in different boxes » (Portfolio thinking) by setting boundaries and interdependence between clever people. ◦ Set its own credibility by possessing a complementary or supplementary ability the clever people miss. E.g. Bill Gates was good at programming.

8 Conclusion Clever people may be the most difficult human resource to manage since they know their value, they possess a bigger bargaining power than any other employees. ◦ They want to be recognized and feel protected by the organization. ◦ They demand a favorable environment to work in. It seems that the effort required by companies is worth it because competencies are shared and successful companies managed to found a balance in the management of their clever people.

9 Discuss How would you like to be managed/lead as a creative person/student? ◦ Leadership vs. management ◦ Control vs. freedom / enabling ◦ Limits vs. no limits ◦ Motivation vs. corrective actions ◦ People vs. structures

10 Fostering Learning - The Role of Mediators Annukka Jyrämä and Anne Äyväri Helsinki School of Economics Jyrämä & Äyväri, Helsinki School of Economics, 2005

11 The key research questions What is the role and means of mediators to foster learning? How does the understanding on learning affect the activities of a mediator? Jyrämä & Äyväri, Helsinki School of Economics, 2005

12 Mediator in between - markets, fields, communities influencing activities – a catalyst bringing together ◦ ideas, knowledge processes... Jyrämä & Äyväri, Helsinki School of Economics, 2005

13 Learning ”as acquiring identities” Learning involves becoming an “insider” (Brown and Duquid, 2001). Knowledge creation is a journey from being to becoming (Nonaka et al., 2000: 8). Identity as a key component of learning (Wenger, 1998) Identity reflects how a learner sees the world and how the world sees the learner. Jyrämä & Äyväri, Helsinki School of Economics, 2005

14 Contexts for learning Ba is a shared place in which knowledge is shared, created and utilized. (Nonaka et al. 2000) Communities of practice is a freely-created community that engages in an activity together and then gradually forms a tight community that learns together through joint practice. (Wenger, 1998) Jyrämä & Äyväri, Helsinki School of Economics, 2005

15 Ba Originating BaDialoguing Ba Systematizing BaExercizing Ba Face- to-face On- the- site Peer- to-peer Colla- bora- tion (Nonaka, I., Konno, N. and Toyama, R. 2001)

16 Community of practice a tight community that learns together through joint practice legitimate peripheral participation ◦ become a legitimate member -> access to mutual engagement, to negotiation, the repertoire in use influence by practice vs. reification Jyrämä & Äyväri, Helsinki School of Economics, 2005

17 Research design qualitative approach a single case – TARU ◦ interviews of artists (20) and mediators (8) ◦ web pages, information letters, etc. Jyrämä & Äyväri, Helsinki School of Economics, 2005

18 What is TARU – the studied case part of EU EQUAL program consists of four national (Finnish) partners aims to help marginal artists, immigrants and disabled, to enter the art field by: ◦ giving guidance in producing and marketing the art ◦ changing the attitudes of authorities, potential employers etc. ◦ seminars, TV programs, exhibitions (own gallery), publishing etc. Jyrämä & Äyväri, Helsinki School of Economics, 2005

19 TARU: ”Arts and diversity” Partners: ◦ Lasipalatsi Media Centre Ltd. (responsible for the co-ordination and financial management of the project), ◦ YLE Finnish Broadcasting Company (broadcasts TARU -tv-shows as a part of a morning program), ◦ Finnish Theatre Information Centre (responsible for training and education in this project), and ◦ Försti-Filmi Ltd., a privately-owned production company (responsible for TARU -tv-programs) About 170 artists Jyrämä & Äyväri, Helsinki School of Economics, 2005

20 TARU-activities training (seminars, i.e. lectures given by authorities and experts in the Finnish art field) a regular tv-show (10 minutes each, 31 shows by the time of the data collection) a list of those artists who have joined the project in TARU web pages (about 170 persons), links to home pages of artists (most of them created by the project) in TARU web pages, six exhibitions have been shown in the art gallery of Lasipalatsi Media Centre two books have been published by the TARU-artists. Jyrämä & Äyväri, Helsinki School of Economics, 2005

21 Artists’ expectations Artists expected contacts, networking, and pragmatic help to build one’s own career ◦ Interaction among peers to share experiences, values and beliefs. ◦ Networking: potential partners, individuals and institutions capable of helping them to develop their careers ◦ Practical help: how to organize a concert, how to contact publishers, gallery owners or agents. Jyrämä & Äyväri, Helsinki School of Economics, 2005

22 Artists’ views on the roles of mediators  The project was expected to create chances for networking, and therefore the mediators were expected to know the actors in the professional art field -> network brokers.  Individual guidance, advice and tips was expected -> personal tutors or coaches.  Marketing-related help was expected -> sales managers or agents; designers of internet pages and press releases.  Some believed that TARU itself should have employed the artists as assistant project managers or organizers of joint productions. Jyrämä & Äyväri, Helsinki School of Economics, 2005

23 Mediators’ views on their own roles  Organizing indirect means (tv-shows, seminars, web pages) which would enhance the artists’ opportunities to integrate in the Finnish art field.  Documenting the best practices at home and abroad.  Recruiting the best experts to give lessons.  Would like to give personal help, but impossible. Jyrämä & Äyväri, Helsinki School of Economics, 2005

24 TARU activities so far Jyrämä & Äyväri, Helsinki School of Economics, 2005 Originating ba (face-to-face) group work in the first seminar coffee breaks in the seminars Dialoguing ba (peer-to-peer) face-to-face discussions between the most active artists and mediators in the offices of partnering organizations Exercising ba (on-site) joint production in the Night of the Arts –happening drawing up applications for funds using advice received in face-to-face discussions when organizing one’s own concert or exhibition Systematizing ba (collaboration) web pages lectures and other information given in seminars information letters, e-mail sent by the TARU organizers

25 TARU activities - planned Jyrämä & Äyväri, Helsinki School of Economics, 2005 Originating ba (face-to-face) a producer for personal interaction with the artists TARU Club or Café to be opened Dialoguing ba (peer-to-peer) small groups (be the type of art) led by the tutor TARU Club or Café to be opened Systematizing ba (collaboration) best practices and models on web pages, also from other EQUAL projects in Finland and abroad reports on seminars and all the other activities on web pages Exercising ba (on-site) using the information given about the TARU artists on the web pages, finding partners in joint art productions applying the models and other best practices shown on the web pages and television shows exhibitions or performances organized and books published be the TARU project

26 TARU activities the organizers were not part of the community of practice aimed at ”lessons about - not within” use of participation: no use of their own contacts to cerate interaction reification ways were used: influenceing through various media Jyrämä & Äyväri, Helsinki School of Economics, 2005

27 Mediators’ role in artists’ identity construction In the discussions with the mediators the question of construction of an artist identity was not raised – only indirect means to strenghten TARU artists’ market position were discussed. The mediators expected artists to learn mostly by adopting explicit knowledge transferred from the experts. -> They did not think learning ”as becoming”. The mediators did not regard their role as supporters in participants’ identity conctruction. Jyrämä & Äyväri, Helsinki School of Economics, 2005

28 Identity: TARU activities - planned Personal discussions with the newly employed producer The Club or Café The tutor-led groups Exhibitions in the Lasipalatsi Gallery, books to be published Project’s support for creating versatile exercising ba needs to be strenghtened. Jyrämä & Äyväri, Helsinki School of Economics, 2005

29 Conclusions using a framework forces to think in a different way what kind of knowledge can be transferred and what needs to be learnt through experience; ◦ tacit – explicit ◦ practices – information Jyrämä & Äyväri, Helsinki School of Economics, 2005

30 Conclusions two theoretical concepts for context of learning: ◦ discovering different aspects; space/ nature of knowledge ◦ human actions; participation, access to a community Jyrämä & Äyväri, Helsinki School of Economics, 2005

31 Articles on the topic Jyrämä, Annukka and Äyväri, Anne(2007) : Fostering learning - The role of mediators. Knowledge Management Research & Practice, 5 (2): 117-125. Jyrämä, A. and Äyväri, A.(2005) : Can the Knowledge- Creation process be managed? A Case Study of an Artist Training Project. International Journal of Arts Management, Vol. 7 (2), 4-14.

32 Case: Finnish National Gallery Based on the article; How would you manage or lead the people working in this organization What are the main issues to remember ry/missionvaluesandvision ry/missionvaluesandvision

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