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Designing Questionnaires for Children and Young People Alice Bell Families and Children Group National Centre for Social Research (NatCen) Royal College.

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Presentation on theme: "Designing Questionnaires for Children and Young People Alice Bell Families and Children Group National Centre for Social Research (NatCen) Royal College."— Presentation transcript:

1 Designing Questionnaires for Children and Young People Alice Bell Families and Children Group National Centre for Social Research (NatCen) Royal College of Nursing Conference ‘Consulting with Children and Young People’ Friday 9th June 2006

2 Session outline Quantitative and qualitative research When to use questionnaires with children and young people Designing questions for children and young people - the Question and Answer Model Question testing techniques Interactive quiz!

3 Two types of research QuantitativeQualitative

4 Two types of research Quantitative Fixed (questionnaires) Qualitative Flexible (e.g. topic guides)

5 Two types of research Quantitative Fixed (questionnaires) Incidence & prevalence Qualitative Flexible (e.g. topic guides) Reasons & explanation

6 Two types of research Quantitative Fixed (questionnaires) Incidence & prevalence Representative sample Qualitative Flexible (e.g. topic guides) Reasons & explanation Purposive sample

7 Two types of research Quantitative Fixed (questionnaires) Incidence & prevalence Representative sample Data ordered & numerical Qualitative Flexible (e.g. topic guides) Reasons & explanation Purposive sample Data disorderly & rich

8 Choosing an appropriate methodology (1) Traditional leaning towards using qualitative techniques with children and young people Quantitative research widely considered feasible from age 7… …but age only a rough proxy for various aspects of ‘development’

9 Choosing an appropriate methodology (2) Be clear about your research questions Identify your population Consider time and budget Quant and qual in combination?

10 Range of quantitative options Face-to-face interviewing (paper or computer- assisted) Telephone interviewing (paper or computer-assisted) Self-completion questionnaires (paper or computer- based - including online)

11 Question-Answer Model Comprehend question Respond Judge Retrieve information (Tourangeau 1984)

12 Comprehension Vocabulary Question length Ambiguity Double-barrelled questions Depersonalised/indirect questions Complex constructions Negative questions Suggestively phrased questions

13 Retrieval Level of recall Complexity of retrieval process Reference periods

14 Judgement Filtering responses - social desirability Context effects ‘No right or wrong answers’ Sensitive questions and topics

15 Response Number of response categories Ordering of response categories Scales and labels Explicit vs implicit ‘Don’t Know’s Showcards

16 Question testing Sometimes called ‘cognitive testing’ Used to revise and refine questionnaire In-depth interviews; retrospective probing and ‘think- aloud’ techniques Other options: expert appraisal, focus groups, observation

17 Question testing - example (1) Do you have a personal computer (PC) at home? (Tick one box) Yes No

18 Question testing - example (1) revised Do you or your family have a computer at home? (Tick one box) Yes No

19 Question testing - example (2) How often, if ever, are you punished at school e.g. detention, sent to see the head teacher, sent out of the classroom? Never Rarely Sometimes Often

20 Question testing - example (2) revised In the last four weeks, how many times have you been punished at school? Never Once or twice Three or more times


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