Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Child Maltreatment Susan Acosta PSY 341 February 17, 2004.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Child Maltreatment Susan Acosta PSY 341 February 17, 2004."— Presentation transcript:

1 Child Maltreatment Susan Acosta PSY 341 February 17, 2004

2 Timeline of child maltreatment Harsh discipline viewed as parent’s right and responsibility Idea of child maltreatment is gaining worldwide recognition About 3 million reports made annually to child protective services

3 Definition Child maltreatment refers to four acts Physical abuse Physical abuse Emotional abuse Emotional abuse Sexual abuse Sexual abuse Neglect Neglect UNICEF: persons under 18 years of age who suffer occasional or habitual acts of violence

4 Physical abuse World Health Organization (WHO) Acts that result in actual or potential physical harm, resulting from an interaction that is within the control of a parent or person in a position of responsibility, power or trust Acts that result in actual or potential physical harm, resulting from an interaction that is within the control of a parent or person in a position of responsibility, power or trust

5 Emotional abuse Failure to provide a developmentally appropriate, supportive environment, so that a child can establish a stable and full range of emotional and social competencies “commensurate with his or her personal potential”

6 Sexual abuse Involvement of a child in sexual activity that he/she does not fully comprehend, is not able to give consent to, and that violates the laws or taboos of society

7 Neglect Failure to provide for a child in all domains: physical and mental health, education, nutrition, shelter, and safe living conditions, when the resources are reasonably available to the family or caretakers

8 Maltreatment Statistics National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect (Sedlak & Broadhurst, 1995) Overall rate of child maltreatment of over 1,500,000 Overall rate of child maltreatment of over 1,500,000 Includes 750,000 cases of child abuse and 880,000 cases of neglect Does not discriminate across gender, language, religion, age, ethnicity, disability, or sexual orientation

9 Results of Maltreatment Direct effects not yet fully understood, although it is a significant risk factor for psychopathology Affects all aspects of development

10 Family environment Patterns seen across maltreatment types Family environment of coercion and abuse of power Family environment of coercion and abuse of power Lower levels of prosocial behavior and verbal communication Lower levels of prosocial behavior and verbal communication Undervaluing of children Undervaluing of children Deviant affective displays Deviant affective displays Maternal intrusiveness and non- responsiveness Maternal intrusiveness and non- responsiveness

11 Cognitive adaptations Maltreated children create defensive structure in reaction to trauma Cognitive distortions, dissociation, cognitive vigilance Cognitive distortions, dissociation, cognitive vigilance Hypervigilance: constant scanning of environment and development of ability to detect subtle variations in it Dissociation: alter level of self-awareness in an effort to escape an upsetting event or feeling Psychological escape Psychological escape

12 Social and emotional adjustments Maltreated children often suffer from low self-esteem, self-blame, and negative affect toward the self Greater risk for peer rejection The longer maltreatment occurs, the greater the likelihood of rejection, perhaps because of tendency to engage in coercive, aggressive interactions with peers as result of abuse The longer maltreatment occurs, the greater the likelihood of rejection, perhaps because of tendency to engage in coercive, aggressive interactions with peers as result of abuse

13 Emotion regulation Involves ability to modify, redirect, and control emotions Maltreated children engage in efforts to avoid, control or suppress emotion Modulation difficulties: extreme depressive reactions and intense angry outbursts Internalizing behavior problems

14 Overlap with risky behaviors Increased likelihood to engage in a greater array of risky behaviors Certain types of maltreatment associated with a greater number of sexual partners and heavier alcohol consumption Adult survivors likely to engage in substance abuse, criminal and antisocial behavior, and eating disorders

15 Bolger et al., children (56 males, 52 females) from the Charlottesville Longitudinal Study, the Child Abuse and Neglect Information System, and local files from departments of social services in Virginia Children grouped according to maltreatment subtype and severity

16 Bolger et al, 1998 Hypotheses Physical abuse will be associated with low self-esteem Physical abuse will be associated with low self-esteem Emotional maltreatment will result in difficulties forming friendshipsand low self- esteem Emotional maltreatment will result in difficulties forming friendshipsand low self- esteem

17 Bolger et al., 1998 Findings Maltreated children reported to have less satisfactory relationships with their peers and create negative self-concepts Physically abused children form less positive self-concepts and more likely to be viewed as unpopular Maltreated children form poor peer relationships, found to produce later adjustment problems and antisocial behavior

18 Does abuse predict malfunction? Many children and adolescents who suffer maltreatment become well-functioning adults Maltreatment can also result in significant negative consequences that continue into adulthood Although many survivors function well in adulthood, others suffer serious psychological distress and disturbance

19 Why? Maltreating parents may fail to produce opportunities for positive social interaction for their children Children who experienced a lack of parental supervision were less likely to be accepted by peers Tendency to engage in unskilled or aggressive behavior Tendency to engage in unskilled or aggressive behavior

20 Possible buffers Maltreating parents may fail to produce opportunities for positive social interaction for their children Opportunities found elsewhere (i.e., other family members, friends, teachers, etc.) Opportunities found elsewhere (i.e., other family members, friends, teachers, etc.) Maltreated children with best friends are more likely to experience increased self- esteem and self-concept than other maltreated children

21 Current issues Improved identification of occurrence of maltreatment Examination of its consequences What determines effect of abuse? What determines effect of abuse? Establishing adequate services and supports for families and children to protect from exploitation and harm

22 How to make a report ABUSE ( ) Provide the following Victim name, address or location, approximate age, race and sex Victim name, address or location, approximate age, race and sex Signs or indications of harm or injury, including a physical description if possible Signs or indications of harm or injury, including a physical description if possible Relationship of the alleged possible responsible person to the victim. If the relationship is unknown, a report will still be taken if other reporting criteria are met. Relationship of the alleged possible responsible person to the victim. If the relationship is unknown, a report will still be taken if other reporting criteria are met.

23 Questions Define the four types of maltreatment? What are some features that of families in which maltreatment occurs? What are potential consequences of maltreatment? What did Bolger find were the consequences of maltreatment? Why might these consequences occur? How might a child be “buffered” from adverse effects?


Download ppt "Child Maltreatment Susan Acosta PSY 341 February 17, 2004."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google