Presentation on theme: "Parenting Teti & Huang For infants parenting competency can be defined by the security of the infant-mother attachment Ainsworth attachment research: parental."— Presentation transcript:
Parenting Teti & Huang For infants parenting competency can be defined by the security of the infant-mother attachment Ainsworth attachment research: parental sensitivity is the most important feature for having a secure attachment –Mother’s ability to perceive and interpret signs in her infants behavior Awareness of signals, alertness Ability to interpret the signals (empathy and no distortion) Responding to the signals promptly and appropriately
Instrumentally competent child: independent, responsible, achievement, friendly, cooperation Parenting Styles Authoritarian: high control and maturity demands, low nurturance and clarity of communication Permissive: high nurturance and clarity, low control and maturity demands Authoritative: high on all dimensions, nurturing but have firm consistent control, clear rules Children from authoritative homes are the most instrumentally competent –Independent, assertive, achievement oriented, friendly, and cooperative
Authoritarian: hostile, less achievement oriented, more dependent Permissive: dependent, poor self-control –Neither teach children how to cope with stress and adapt to life situations Control and Discipline Power assertion: threat or use of force, physical punishment, and withdrawing privileges Love withdrawal: ignoring or showing disappointment Reasoning/Explanation: communicating to the child what was done wrong and showing how it affected others rights and feelings –Best for fostering internalization, but can be used with other methods
Spanking Children Kazdin & Benjet, 2003) Spanking children is a broad area interest in many disciplines Using corporal punishment for discipline in the home has been banned in some counties (Austria, Croatia, Denmark, Norway, Sweden) UN is against all forms of physical violence to children In the US, there are laws against being hit by others for adults, some organizations lobby for the same laws for children
In the US 74% of parents say the spank their children (aged 17 and under). Of those parents with 3-4 yr olds, 94% say they use corporal punishment What is considered spanking? –“hitting a child with an open hand on the buttocks or extremities with the intent to discipline without leaving a bruise or causing physical harm” What is Physical abuse? –“corporal punishment that is harsh and excessive, involves the use of objects (belts, paddles) is directed towards parts of the body other than extremities, and causes or has the potential to cause physical harm”
Views of Spanking Pro-corporal punishment: not supported in academic & research writings, but occurs in society –Biblical quote “spare the rod and spoil the child” –Promotes spanking and states that negative consequences result from not spanking Anti-corporal punishment: Focuses on the negative consequences of corporal punishment –“Violence begets violence”, modelling and social learning –Morality of inflicting pain Conditional corporal punishment: spanking is not negative or positive, but depends on the conditions –Spanking varies across dimensions (frequency and intensity) and contexts. Does not advocate or refute.
Gershoff (2002): conducted a meta-analysis of 88 studies on corporal punishment Looked at relation between corporal punishment and child outcomes (compliance, moral internalization, aggression, criminal and antisocial behaviour, parent-child relationship, mental health, and abuse). Spanking tended to lead to immediate compliance of the child, but Associated with decreased internalization of morals, poorer parent-child relationships, poorer mental health of child and adult, more delinquency and antisocial behaviour. At risk for abuse or abusing one’s child or spouse More angry, aggressive and stressed
The review had studies with more harsh punishments or even physical abuse and these studies had more negative outcomes Another review (Larzelere, 2000) found that mild spanking, as a back up, may not be detrimental Key Issues for Research: Different definitions of spanking Most research on the effects of spanking on child outcomes are retrospective, with ratings completed by the same person (parent) Difficult to say that spanking actually preceded the ‘outcome’ (e.g. child deviance) Spanking may be a proxy for other variables related to negative child outcomes. –Parents who spank tend to do less reading, playing, and hugging with children –They have more stress and major life events, marital dysfunction, mental illness and substance abuse
Goal of discipline is to decrease some behaviors (negative) and develop others (positive) Not a lot of research to show punishment is the best strategy Positive reinforcement techniques work Child abuse has many serious negative effects (changes in the brain), but it is not clear if & how the brain distinguishes between abuse & spanking Need research on how spanking affects other psychological processes (attachment, emotion reg) Harsh frequent spanking has negative outcomes, but effects of mild occasional spanking are unclear Caution against use of spanking: other good methods and may lead to more harsh punishment
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