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Safeguarding Children in Education  CHILD PROTECTION  Training for school staff  Helen Wilson  Advisory Teacher Child Protection.

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Presentation on theme: "Safeguarding Children in Education  CHILD PROTECTION  Training for school staff  Helen Wilson  Advisory Teacher Child Protection."— Presentation transcript:

1 Safeguarding Children in Education  CHILD PROTECTION  Training for school staff  Helen Wilson  Advisory Teacher Child Protection

2 Aim: To increase awareness of issues related to safeguarding Objectives: To have thought about safeguarding children and what are safe working practices in school Know what to do if you are worried that a child is being abused Be able to identify common signs and indicators of child abuse

3 Child Protection Training Often deals with sensitive issues Questions and contributions are welcome Anything shared during the training session will remain confidential

4 Safeguarding Protecting children from maltreatment Preventing impairment of children’s health or development Ensuring that children are growing up in circumstances consistent with the provision of safe effective care; and Taking action to enable children in need to have optimum life chances

5 Safeguarding Children are best protected when professionals are clear about what is required individually, and how they need to work together

6 The Legal Framework Framework for the Assessment of Children in Need and their Families (DH2003) What To Do If You Are Worried A Child Is Being Abused (DH2006) Safeguarding Children and Safer Recruitment in Education (DfES 2007) Working Together to Safeguard Children (March 2010) revised Sept 2012 Trafford Council Child Protection / Child in Need Procedures Local Safeguarding Children Boards TSCB CRB Checks – Child Protection Safer Recruitment

7 Section 175 Education Act 2002 Safeguarding Agenda A duty to have arrangements about safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children

8 Section 175/157 Education Act 2002 (2) The governing body of a maintained school and Proprietors of Independent Schools shall make arrangements for ensuring that its functions relating to the conduct of the school are exercised with a view to safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children who are pupils at the school

9 Safeguarding All agencies to ensure that the risks of harm to children’s welfare are minimised Where there are concerns, all agencies take action to address those concerns Working to agreed local policies and procedures Working in full partnership with other local agencies

10 Working in Partnership Social Services Neighbours Community police Education Health

11 Child Protection Staff Conduct Curriculum Managing Allegations Against Staff Building Design Safeguarding Safe Recruitment and Selection Whistle-blower Health & Safety Behaviour Management Attendance Anti Bullying policies

12 Objectives Keeping children safe Providing a safe environment to learn Identify children who are suffering or likely to suffer significant harm Taking appropriate action with the aim of making sure they are kept safe at home and school

13 More than protecting individual children Pupil Health Safety Bullying Meeting the needs of children with medical conditions First Aid School Security Drugs and substance misuse Also specific safeguarding needs of individual children

14 Children have a range of needs … child protection. assessment framework. safeguarding

15 Model of Children in Need Level 4 Child Protection Level 3 Child Concern Level 2 Need for Support Level 1 Universal Common Assessment Framework (CAF) Children can and do move up/down the ‘needs triangle’

16 CHILDREN IN NEED/OF PROTECTION Level 1 – Universal Universal services for all children. Social Services do not provide a service at this level. Level 2 - Need for Support Children who are unlikely to achieve or maintain or have the opportunity of achieving or maintaining a reasonable standard of health or development without the provision for him/her of services, or he/she is disabled. This level is single agency response that may result in other agencies calling a Child in Need meeting.

17 CHILDREN IN NEED/OF PROTECTION CONTINUED Level 3 - Child Concern Children where risk issues or concerns are identified and a multi-agency response is required to address them. Children Act S17 (1c): ‘his health or development is likely to be significantly impaired or further impaired without the provision of such services’ Level 4 - Need for Protection Where abuse has occurred and there is continuing risk or continued likelihood of significant harm. Children may enter the model at any level and can move through the different levels at different times in their lives.

18 ASSESSMENT FRAMEWORK CHILD Safeguarding and promoting welfare PARENTING CAPACITY Family & Social Relationships FAMILY & ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Basic Care Ensuring Safety Emotional Warmth Stimulation Guidance & Boundaries Stability Family History Functioning Wider Family Housing Income Family’s Social Integration Community Resource Self-care Skills Social Presentation Family & Social Relationships Emotional & Behavioral Development Identity Education Health

19 Why Schools Matter After parents, education staff are the adults who have most contact with children School staff are the only professionals who routinely have daily contact with children Not many children have a social worker, the majority of children attend school

20 Barriers to Diagnosis The biggest barrier to diagnosis is the existence of emotional blocks in the minds of professionals. These can be so powerful that they prevent diagnosis even being considered in quite obvious cases. All those working with children should be warned that their overwhelming impulse on confronting their first case is to cover it up.

21 Lauren Wright – when she died, she had lost four stone and weighed only two stone after appearing with bruises, which were explained away Lauren was killed by her stepmother

22 Lauren Wright – “lots of times, often she was covered with lots of small bruises and with major bruises about once a month. These included black eyes, bruising to her face and scratches across her back.” Class Teacher “Her physical deterioration had been apparent for at least 5 months before she died.” Head Teacher House of Commons Hansard Debates for 16 th July 2003: Column 479

23 What went wrong? Lauren’s stepmother was a member of staff in the school The designated teacher for the child protection had left the school A Governor offered to take on the responsibility for the child protection

24 What went wrong? Lauren’s Classroom teacher has received no child protection training The stepmother told Paediatrician that the bruises were as a result of bullying in school No referral was made by either of the teachers to Social Services

25 What is Child Abuse? A range of ways in which people harm children: Physical injury Sexual abuse Emotional abuse Neglect Can suffer from one or a combination of these Often the abuser is someone known

26 What is child abuse? ‘The child is suffering from significant harm or is likely to suffer significant harm’ (The Children Act 1989) The emphasis is on present and future harm

27 Physical Abuse Physically hurts or injures a child by: Hitting, shaking, biting, throwing, burning & scalding. Drowning, suffocating, fabricated & induced illness. Giving alcohol, inappropriate drugs or poison Fails to prevent physical injury or suffering Whether a child was knowingly put at risk Whether reasonable attention was paid to the safety of the child

28 Common sites for physical injury SKULL – fracture or bleeding under skill (from shaking) EARS – pinch or slap marks, bruising NECK – bruising, grasp marks UPPER & INNER ARM – bruising, grasp marks CHEST – bruising, grasp marks Linear bruising. Outline of belt/buckles. Scalds/burns. BACK ) BUTTOCKS) THIGHTS ) KNEES – grasp marks GENITALS - bruising SHOULDERS – bruising, grasp marks MOUTH – torn frenulum CHEEK/SIDE OF FACE – bruising, finger marks Eyes - Bruising, black (particularly both eyes)

29 Common sites for physical injury NOSE BONEY SPINE FOREARM HIPS SHINS KNEES ELBOWS CHIN FOREHEAD

30 Emotional Abuse Persistent emotional ill-treatment of a child such as to cause severe and persistent adverse effects on his/her emotional development. It may involve: conveying to children they are worthless, unloved or inadequate – regularly humiliating a child conveying to children that they are valued only insofar as they meet the needs of another person inappropriate expectations for their age or development causing children to feel frightened or in danger the exploitation or corruption of children

31 Neglect Persistent failure to meet the child’s basis and/or psychological needs, likely to result in the serious impairment of a child’s health or development. It may involve: a parent or carer failing to provide adequate food, shelter and clothing failing to protect a child from physical harm or danger – left alone failure to ensure access to appropriate medical care or treatment unresponsiveness to a child’s basic emotional needs

32 Sexual Abuse Forcing or enticing a child or young person to take part in sexual activities, whether or not the child is aware of what is happening. Activities include: physical contact, including penetrative and non-penetrative acts involving children looking at or in the production of pornographic material watching sexual activities encouraging children to behave in sexually inappropriate ways inappropriate discussion about sexual matters Both girls and boys can be victims

33 Domestic Abuse The effects is of domestic violence on children is such that it must be considered as abuse. Either witnessing it or being the subject of it is not only traumatic in itself but is likely to adversely impact on a child and it should be treated as physical or emotional abuse as appropriate.

34 Resources (changing to Trafford Domestic Abuse Services (TDAS) (For young people) The Expect Respect Education Toolkit- a series of lesson plans from Reception to Yr 13

35 Domestic Abuse Children living in households where DA is happening are now identified as ‘at risk’ Adoption & Children Act extended the legal definition of harm to include harm suffered by seeing or hearing ill treatment of others

36 Some Effects Children are confused and frightened They don’t know who they can trust Effects are far ranging and often profound Context of abuse How long has the abuse gone on for?

37 Recognising Child Abuse Two areas 1. Physical signs 2. Behavioural signs Education staff are well placed to observe signs/changes in behaviour. They can do no more than give rise to suspicion – not proof. Education service does not have direct investigative responsibility

38 Neglect Physical signs: hungry/stealing food frequently dirty, smelly loss of weight/under weight dressed inadequately untreated medical conditions Behavioural signs: always tired missing school or being late compulsive stealing or scavenging few friends fails to attend medical appointments

39 Physical Abuse Physical signs: injuries which a child cannot explain injuries not treated bruising cigarette burns/human bite marks broken bones scalds Behavioural signs: reluctant to have parents contacted aggressive/temper outbursts/depression shows fear flinches when approached or touched reluctance to get undressed for sport unnaturally compliant

40 Sexual Abuse Physical signs: plain, discomfort around genital area sexually transmitted disease frequent stomach pains pregnancy in a girl under 16 years were the identity of the father is a secret Behavioural signs: fear of someone nightmares/bedwetting self harm sexualised behaviour/knowledge in young children sexual drawings/ language reluctance to undress for sport

41 Emotional Abuse Physical signs: failure to grow or thrive sudden speech disorders delayed development Behavioural signs: compulsive nervous behaviour eg. rocking unwillingness to play fear of making mistakes excessive lack of confidence excessive need for approval

42 Procedures All schools must have a written child protection policy A designated person for child protection All staff need to be aware of procedures

43 Designated Person for Child Protection Attends refresher training every 2 years (all staff every 3 years) Liaises with other agencies about child protection Acts as a source of support, advice and expertise within the school Ensures all staff have child protection training

44 TSCB Child Protection Procedures Sexual Abuse Consult with the designated person as soon as possible Listen to the child Limit the questions / not leading questions Do not ask a child to undress Reassure the child Do not keep secrets Record actual words of the child Parents/carers should not be contacted

45 Procedures for cases other than sexual abuse Consult with the designated person Check the CP file for any previous concerns Listen to the child and reassure Don’t ask leading questions or examine the child Information can not be kept secret Make careful notes, visible injuries, observations of behaviour/emotional state Sign and date information

46 What is designated CP person will find helpful to know  What is your concern  How/why your concerns have arisen  What you have seen/heard to make you believe a child may be at risk  Do you know if anyone shares your concerns  The child’s name, age, ethnicity, disability/SEN  Have you discussed concerns with parents/carers. How did they respond?

47 Recording Concerns Make a careful note of exactly what the child said as soon as possible Notes should be taken objectively and factual Behaviour and/or emotional state Any injuries or marks to the body showing location, date and explanation for the injury Attendance Appearance/dress – especially if concerns about neglect Include dates, times, events

48 How to respond if a child confides in you Take what the child says seriously Listen to the child carefully and without interruption or prompting Remain calm, don’t rush into any action which may be inappropriate Reassure / how are you going to help If in a group situation, arrange to speak with the child on their own Make sure emergency medical care is provided if necessary

49 Responses to avoid Do not allow your shock to distaste to shoe Do not probe for more information that is offered Do not speculate or make assumptions Do not make negative comments about the alleged abuser Do not make any promises that you cannot keep Do not keep information a secret Never delay emergency action to safeguard Never express disbelief in what the child is saying Disabled/children with SEN may find it more difficult to disclose abuse

50 Golden Rules Do Don’t Listen carefully Make accurate notes using the child’s words Inform the designated person for child protection Tell the child that they have done the right thing by telling you Ask leading questions Use your own words to describe events Investigate Promise confidentiality

51 Guidance Independent Safeguarding Authority (ISA) Referrals to MARAT- Single Agency Referral Form ( S.A.R.F.) Tel Trafford Safeguarding Children’s Board (TSCB) website Munro Review

52 Allegations against staff LADO Local Authority Designated Officer (LADO)  Manage and oversee individual cases  Provide advice and guidance  Liaise with police and other agencies  Monitor progress of cases

53 Senior Manager considers: What information do I have about the subject of the allegation? What information do I have about the child/adult making the allegation? Am I aware of any incident/tension/friction between the parties? Senior Manager must then consider: Does the allegation suggest that the individual has: behaved in a way that has harmed, or may have harmed, a child possibly committed a criminal offence against, or related to a child, a child; or behaved towards a child or children in a way that indicates s/he is unsuitable to work with children Contact LADO

54 Allegation Allegation reported to senior manager named in employees procedures Senior manager considers alleged behaviour Contacts LADO Allegation Initial discussion with LADO and decision re course of action Strategy Discussion Employers Action (including disciplinary action) Assessment by Social Care LADO tracks progress, monitors outcomes and reports to the LSCB and DCSF Police investigation Behaved towards a child or children in a way that indicates s/he is unsuitable to work with children Possibly committed a criminal offence against, or related to, a child; or Behaved in a way that has harmed, or may have harmed a child Internal Action e.g. Support for Staff/ Child Parent Policy review Staff Training

55 Framework for the inspection of Maintained schools in England From January 2012 Key judgements – Leadership and Management Ensure that all pupils are safe The behaviour and safety of pupils Behaviour management Anti-bullying Behaviour around school

56 Private Fostering

57 What is private fostering? The Children Act 1989 defines PF as… A child/young person under 16, or under 18 if disabled, who is cared for by someone other than: Their parent A person with parental responsibility A close relative For 28 days or more

58 Close relatives are defined as: Parents or step-parents Siblings Brothers or sisters of a parent (full or half blood or by marriage) Grandparents Private fostering arrangements are usually continuous but allow occasional short breaks

59 How is it organised? Private fostering is organised as a private arrangement between parents and carers, not by the Local Authority BUT the Local Authority should be informed about it and assess it’s suitability, meet the child regularly and offer any support required to meet the child’s needs.

60 Why is private fostering so important? The reasons for children becoming privately fostered are varied and complex and they are at risk of being “invisible children” Research has found that children in private fostering arrangements have more difficulties in life and less support than children in standard foster placements ( Holden 1973) Private fostering arrangements are often invisible and are a potential honey pot for abusers One in ten children are believed to be privately fostered at some time during their childhood

61 Examples of possible private fostering: Young people coming to England for education and staying with carers who are not close relatives Children staying with friends while a parent is in hospital Teenagers staying with friends due to the breakdown of relationships at home or to be with a boyfriend/girlfriend Children with disabilities staying with distant family due to the pressure of meeting their needs

62 What you need to do If you think an arrangement exists which might could be considered Private Fostering, or you are not sure - you must contact MARAT with as much detail as possible to get their advice and support. MARAT – (0161) More Information on Trafford Council Website – Trafford Private Fostering


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