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Crime Victims: An Introduction to Victimology Sixth Edition

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Presentation on theme: "Crime Victims: An Introduction to Victimology Sixth Edition"— Presentation transcript:

1 Crime Victims: An Introduction to Victimology Sixth Edition
By Andrew Karmen Chapter Eight: Children as Victims

2 Children as Victims Maximalist vs. Minimalist Positions
Debate continues with no real statistical data Maximalist Overlooked problem reaching epidemic proportions Wider suffering problem not receiving adequate attention Must mobilize people to combat growing crisis

3 Children as Victims Minimalist Skeptical of scope and seriousness
Attention and expenditures not warranted Minimalists’ and Maximalists’ viewpoints are ideologies Individuals of these categories are considered alarmists or skeptics

4 Missing Children Inveiglement—detainment through trickery or manipulation Kidnapping For Ransom For Sex Raise as Child To Kill

5 Missing Children See Box 8.1, page 182: Highlights of the Rediscovery of the Missing Children Problem No real data on “Kidnapping” Not even a Part 1 Crime under UCR NCVS does not include crimes against children under age 12

6 Missing Children 1984 National Incidence Study of Missing, Abducted, Runaway and Throwaway (NISMART) established to gather data See Box 8.2, page 186 Life-Threatening Kidnappings per Year 12,000 Short-Term Abductions by Non-Family Member per Year 56,500 Long-Term Abductions by Family Member per Year

7 Missing Children NISMART 2 study of over 800,000 cases reported to police: 45% runaways or throwaways 43% misunderstandings and miscommunication between child and parents 8% did not return home due to lost/injured

8 Missing Children National Responses to Problem
“Be On the Look Out” (BOLO) Code Adam Amber Alert Stranger Danger Family Secret Words Stockholm Syndrome Challenges

9 Physically and Sexually Abused Children
Battered Child Syndrome—cyclical pattern of excessive force perpetrated by parents who themselves were abused Neglect—abandoned or failed to provide basic requirements Physical, Emotional, Educational Physical Abuse—Physical force to extended confinement Sexual Abuse—Incest, fondling, sodomy, intercourse, rape and exploitation (pornography and prostitution)

10 Child Abuse Private Survey
60% of 2-parent families experience violence 38% of girls molested 31% of boys sexually molested 1% raped by father or grandfather

11 Child Abuse Maximalist Position
Occurring in enormous numbers—not reported Under-reporting serious problem Professionals, teachers, counselors not reporting Cases reported not followed up on due to lack of resources

12 Child Abuse Minimalist Position
Definition of child abuse expanding—slaps and spanking included “Abuse” now includes “normal discipline” Events not increasing—Reporting increasing Unproven allegations should not be counted Media has sensationalized occurrences

13 Child Abuse Trends of 70s–90s saw increased events
Ebbed in late 90s and now decreasing 2001: Rates of “very serious violence” dropped from 36/1000 to 19/1000—50% decrease! Drugs and alcohol are factors contributing to child abuse

14 Child Sex Abuse Continued
SAID Syndrome—”Sexual Allegations in Divorce” Repressed Memories of Children—False Memory (Pseudomemories) coined by Sigmund Freud Sex Abuse by Clerics Satanic Cults

15 Abused Children and Legal Proceedings
Prevention of further abuse in CJ system Guardian Ad Litem (GAL)—Child Advocate Two ways to view abusers: 1. View the parental wrong as dysfunctional and in need of help 2. View them as criminals in need of help

16 Children as Witnesses Two Points of View
Pro-prosecution/Pro-victim—Children generally competent on fairly recent events. Pro-Defendant—Questions trustworthiness as vulnerable to coaching by adults. High pressure techniques can lead to false memory and ultimately lead to false conviction.

17 Children as Witnesses Wheeler vs. US (1895): children under 14 had to pass competency before testifying Child Abuse Act of 1990 ruled all children competent unless evidence to contrary Child Friendly Courtrooms/Practices 1990 US Supreme Court (Maryland vs. Craig) ruled alternatives permissible Hearsay Rule exceptions, use of dolls, etc.

18 Child Abuse Funnel Model of Criminal Justice System
So many cases are weeded out at various stages, that very few cases where child testifies and parents convicted Pro-active vs. Re-active Strategies What is the proper role of Government? Who do children belong to? Who is responsible for them?

19 Additional Forms of Exploitation of Children
Sibling Abuse Abuse of Adolescents by Parents Statutory Rape of Minors

20 Key Terms Maximalist Minimalist Inveiglement Throwaways Code Adam
Missing Children Stranger Danger Code Adam Amber Alert Child Lures Cruelty to Children House of Refuge Movement Incidence Prevalence Battered Child Syndrome Unfounded Reports Child Sexual Abuse SAID syndrome Pseudomemories Guardian ad litem GAL False memory Funnel Model

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