Presentation on theme: "Crime Victims: An Introduction to Victimology Sixth Edition"— Presentation transcript:
1 Crime Victims: An Introduction to Victimology Sixth Edition By Andrew KarmenChapter Eight:Children as Victims
2 Children as Victims Maximalist vs. Minimalist Positions Debate continues with no real statistical dataMaximalistOverlooked problem reaching epidemic proportionsWider suffering problem not receiving adequate attentionMust mobilize people to combat growing crisis
3 Children as Victims Minimalist Skeptical of scope and seriousness Attention and expenditures not warrantedMinimalists’ and Maximalists’ viewpoints are ideologiesIndividuals of these categories are considered alarmists or skeptics
4 Missing ChildrenInveiglement—detainment through trickery or manipulationKidnappingFor RansomFor SexRaise as ChildTo Kill
5 Missing ChildrenSee Box 8.1, page 182: Highlights of the Rediscovery of the Missing Children ProblemNo real data on “Kidnapping”Not even a Part 1 Crime under UCRNCVS does not include crimes against children under age 12
6 Missing Children1984 National Incidence Study of Missing, Abducted, Runaway and Throwaway (NISMART) established to gather dataSee Box 8.2, page 186Life-Threatening Kidnappings per Year12,000 Short-Term Abductions by Non-Family Member per Year56,500 Long-Term Abductions by Family Member per Year
7 Missing ChildrenNISMART 2 study of over 800,000 cases reported to police:45% runaways or throwaways43% misunderstandings and miscommunication between child and parents8% did not return home due to lost/injured
8 Missing Children National Responses to Problem “Be On the Look Out” (BOLO)Code AdamAmber AlertStranger DangerFamily Secret WordsStockholm Syndrome Challenges
9 Physically and Sexually Abused Children Battered Child Syndrome—cyclical pattern of excessive force perpetrated by parents who themselves were abusedNeglect—abandoned or failed to provide basic requirementsPhysical, Emotional, EducationalPhysical Abuse—Physical force to extended confinementSexual Abuse—Incest, fondling, sodomy, intercourse, rape and exploitation (pornography and prostitution)
10 Child Abuse Private Survey 60% of 2-parent families experience violence38% of girls molested31% of boys sexually molested1% raped by father or grandfather
11 Child Abuse Maximalist Position Occurring in enormous numbers—not reportedUnder-reporting serious problemProfessionals, teachers, counselors not reportingCases reported not followed up on due to lack of resources
12 Child Abuse Minimalist Position Definition of child abuse expanding—slaps and spanking included“Abuse” now includes “normal discipline”Events not increasing—Reporting increasingUnproven allegations should not be countedMedia has sensationalized occurrences
13 Child Abuse Trends of 70s–90s saw increased events Ebbed in late 90s and now decreasing2001: Rates of “very serious violence” dropped from 36/1000 to 19/1000—50% decrease!Drugs and alcohol are factors contributing to child abuse
14 Child Sex Abuse Continued SAID Syndrome—”Sexual Allegations in Divorce”Repressed Memories of Children—False Memory (Pseudomemories) coined by Sigmund FreudSex Abuse by ClericsSatanic Cults
15 Abused Children and Legal Proceedings Prevention of further abuse in CJ systemGuardian Ad Litem (GAL)—Child AdvocateTwo ways to view abusers:1. View the parental wrong as dysfunctional and in need of help2. View them as criminals in need of help
16 Children as Witnesses Two Points of View Pro-prosecution/Pro-victim—Children generally competent on fairly recent events.Pro-Defendant—Questions trustworthiness as vulnerable to coaching by adults. High pressure techniques can lead to false memory and ultimately lead to false conviction.
17 Children as WitnessesWheeler vs. US (1895): children under 14 had to pass competency before testifyingChild Abuse Act of 1990 ruled all children competent unless evidence to contraryChild Friendly Courtrooms/Practices1990 US Supreme Court (Maryland vs. Craig) ruled alternatives permissibleHearsay Rule exceptions, use of dolls, etc.
18 Child Abuse Funnel Model of Criminal Justice System So many cases are weeded out at various stages, that very few cases where child testifies and parents convictedPro-active vs. Re-active StrategiesWhat is the proper role of Government?Who do children belong to?Who is responsible for them?
19 Additional Forms of Exploitation of Children Sibling AbuseAbuse of Adolescents by ParentsStatutory Rape of Minors
20 Key Terms Maximalist Minimalist Inveiglement Throwaways Code Adam Missing ChildrenStranger DangerCode AdamAmber AlertChild LuresCruelty to ChildrenHouse of Refuge MovementIncidencePrevalenceBattered Child SyndromeUnfounded ReportsChild Sexual AbuseSAID syndromePseudomemoriesGuardian ad litem GALFalse memoryFunnel Model