Presentation on theme: "Crime Victims: An Introduction to Victimology Sixth Edition By Andrew Karmen Chapter Eight: Children as Victims."— Presentation transcript:
Crime Victims: An Introduction to Victimology Sixth Edition By Andrew Karmen Chapter Eight: Children as Victims
Maximalist vs. Minimalist Positions –Debate continues with no real statistical data Maximalist Overlooked problem reaching epidemic proportions Wider suffering problem not receiving adequate attention Must mobilize people to combat growing crisis
Children as Victims Minimalist –Skeptical of scope and seriousness –Attention and expenditures not warranted Minimalists’ and Maximalists’ viewpoints are ideologies Individuals of these categories are considered alarmists or skeptics
Missing Children Inveiglement—detainment through trickery or manipulation –Kidnapping –For Ransom –For Sex –Raise as Child –To Kill
Missing Children See Box 8.1, page 182: Highlights of the Rediscovery of the Missing Children Problem No real data on “Kidnapping” –Not even a Part 1 Crime under UCR –NCVS does not include crimes against children under age 12
Missing Children 1984 National Incidence Study of Missing, Abducted, Runaway and Throwaway (NISMART) established to gather data –See Box 8.2, page 186 – Life-Threatening Kidnappings per Year –12,000 Short-Term Abductions by Non-Family Member per Year –56,500 Long-Term Abductions by Family Member per Year
Missing Children NISMART 2 study of over 800,000 cases reported to police: –45% runaways or throwaways –43% misunderstandings and miscommunication between child and parents –8% did not return home due to lost/injured
Missing Children National Responses to Problem –“Be On the Look Out” (BOLO) –Code Adam –Amber Alert –Stranger Danger –Family Secret Words –Stockholm Syndrome Challenges
Physically and Sexually Abused Children Battered Child Syndrome — cyclical pattern of excessive force perpetrated by parents who themselves were abused Neglect—abandoned or failed to provide basic requirements –Physical, Emotional, Educational Physical Abuse— Physical force to extended confinement Sexual Abuse—Incest, fondling, sodomy, intercourse, rape and exploitation (pornography and prostitution)
Child Abuse Private Survey –60% of 2-parent families experience violence –38% of girls molested –31% of boys sexually molested –1% raped by father or grandfather
Child Abuse Maximalist Position –Occurring in enormous numbers—not reported –Under-reporting serious problem –Professionals, teachers, counselors not reporting –Cases reported not followed up on due to lack of resources
Child Abuse Minimalist Position –Definition of child abuse expanding— slaps and spanking included –“Abuse” now includes “normal discipline” –Events not increasing—Reporting increasing –Unproven allegations should not be counted –Media has sensationalized occurrences
Child Abuse Trends of 70s–90s saw increased events Ebbed in late 90s and now decreasing 2001: Rates of “very serious violence” dropped from 36/1000 to 19/1000—50% decrease! Drugs and alcohol are factors contributing to child abuse
Child Sex Abuse Continued SAID Syndrome—”Sexual Allegations in Divorce” Repressed Memories of Children—False Memory (Pseudomemories) coined by Sigmund Freud Sex Abuse by Clerics Satanic Cults
Abused Children and Legal Proceedings Prevention of further abuse in CJ system Guardian Ad Litem (GAL)—Child Advocate Two ways to view abusers: –1. View the parental wrong as dysfunctional and in need of help –2. View them as criminals in need of help
Children as Witnesses Two Points of View –Pro-prosecution/Pro-victim—Children generally competent on fairly recent events. –Pro-Defendant—Questions trustworthiness as vulnerable to coaching by adults. High pressure techniques can lead to false memory and ultimately lead to false conviction.
Children as Witnesses Wheeler vs. US (1895): children under 14 had to pass competency before testifying Child Abuse Act of 1990 ruled all children competent unless evidence to contrary Child Friendly Courtrooms/Practices 1990 US Supreme Court (Maryland vs. Craig) ruled alternatives permissible –Hearsay Rule exceptions, use of dolls, etc.
Child Abuse Funnel Model of Criminal Justice System –So many cases are weeded out at various stages, that very few cases where child testifies and parents convicted –Pro-active vs. Re-active Strategies What is the proper role of Government? Who do children belong to? Who is responsible for them?
Additional Forms of Exploitation of Children Sibling Abuse Abuse of Adolescents by Parents Statutory Rape of Minors
Key Terms MaximalistMinimalistInveiglement Throwaways Missing Children Stranger Danger Code Adam Amber Alert Child Lures Cruelty to Children House of Refuge Movement Incidence Prevalence Battered Child Syndrome Unfounded Reports Child Sexual Abuse SAID syndrome Pseudomemories Guardian ad litem GAL False memory Funnel Model