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Crime Victims: An Introduction to Victimology Sixth Edition By Andrew Karmen Chapter Nine: Victims of Violence by Lovers and Family Members.

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Presentation on theme: "Crime Victims: An Introduction to Victimology Sixth Edition By Andrew Karmen Chapter Nine: Victims of Violence by Lovers and Family Members."— Presentation transcript:

1 Crime Victims: An Introduction to Victimology Sixth Edition By Andrew Karmen Chapter Nine: Victims of Violence by Lovers and Family Members

2 Rediscovery of Wife Beating  Rediscovery during 1970s—”Silent Crisis”  Historical Perspective of Problem –Patriarchy—man’s right to discipline, home was his castle, hands-off policy –RULE of THUMB –Moderate Correction –Unnatural severity—Child abuse/fine or death— Wife abuse/up to judge

3 Rediscovery of Wife Beating  Learned Helplessness—“Battered Woman Syndrome”  Three Phase Cycle of Domestic Violence –Tension Building –The Battering –Tranquil Loving Aftermath

4 Incidence, Prevalence and Seriousness  Which victim-offender relationships should be included or excluded?  What is abuse?—injuries and attacking— definitions clearly shape findings  Is minor violence criminal violence? –Lack of public consensus = normative ambiguity

5 Maximalist Arguments Note  Women much more likely to be harmed by intimate than a stranger  Six million women “physically abused” each year  1.8 million serious assaults  ½ of all incidents not reported to police  Domestic violence is #1 cause of injuries for women aged 15-44

6 Minimalist Arguments Note  Only 1 in 50 women in 20s experience nonfatal violent offenses in a year  NCVS shows trends for domestic violence decreasing –1.1 million offenses in 1993 and 600,000 in 2001

7 Battered Women and CJ System  Therapeutic Model—women not totally innocent. Shared responsibility. Long term approach is to strengthen bond.  Legalistic Model—in favor since 1980s –Separate Parties—Order of Protection –Rescue and protect injured –Punish and rehabilitate aggressor –Arresting may deter future acts

8 Battered Women and CJ System  Police Response—Minneapolis Study –50% of arrested offenders did not re-assault victim –26% of those forced to leave re-offended upon return –18% of those sent to counseling re-offended in follow up period Law Enforcement determined best response was to arrest. Domestic Violence Arrest Without Warrant

9 Battered Women and CJ System  Prosecutorial Response –Women often manipulated into dropping charges –“No drop approach”: need only corroborating evidence if victim does not testify –If accuser fails to show up at trial, case is typically dropped or acquitted

10 Battered Women and CJ System  Judicial response  In too many cases, clear spouse abuse cases can be lengthy trials –Judges order can—evict, bar contact, threats, harassment, stalking, and limit visitation –Civil remedies aimed at separation of two—not to punish –Law enforcement does not actively enforce civil orders

11 Preventing Battering  Current responses not dealing with “root of the problem” –Decision making in family flows with income and property. Men have power—women subordinate to them. –Men taught to be aggressive—Women taught to be passive and resignation. –Rule of Patriarchy—”Men Rule.” –Women must “love, honor, and obey.”

12 Domestic Violence  Same-Sex Partners –Partner violence about same as heterosexuals –Few resources to turn to for help Battered Husbands - Hesitant to report—disbelief to mockery - No access to resources for help Men’s ability to financially support themselves usually results in them leaving the relationship

13 Victim Provocation and Murder  When is slaying of a wife beater justified? –Read Chapter examples, pages  Victim Blaming vs. Victim Defending

14 Victim Provocation and Murder  Victim Defending Arguments—siding with the dead man, noting his provocations not significant enough to justify his death—notes her overreaction—leads to offender blaming that she must be punished accordingly –Violence went too far, should have called police, left the home, divorce –Women cannot be judge, jury, and executioner –Man cannot defend himself in court—he’s dead

15 Victim Provocation and Murder  Victim Blaming Arguments –Dead husband responsible for demise—his insults, challenges and assaults incited her –Those who strike back were socially and economically isolate, more severely beaten, children abused –Deadly force justified as it is a self-defense measure –Weapon justified due to lack of strength –Women often killed by his strength and force

16 Victim Provocation and Murder  Victim blaming most convincing to police when: –Threatened or beaten repeatedly –Prior rescue by police –Testified in court –Sought marital counseling –Attempted escape –Filed for divorce –Visible injuries at arrest  Demonstrates crimes are socially defined. No act is inherently criminal—even homicide!

17 Rediscovery of Other Victims of Beatings  Young Women Battered During Courtship  Abuse of Parents by Adolescents  Elder Abuse  Battering Within Same-Sex Relationships

18 Preventing Battering  Primary Prevention Programs –Attempts to change attitudes of large numbers of people—high school students  Secondary Prevention Programs –Intervention into lives of high risk couples –Teaching of negotiation and anger management techniques

19 Key Terms Intimate Partners Domestic Tranquility patriarchy Unnatural severity Moderate correction Domestic chastisement Rule of Thumb Battered woman syndrome speakouts Normative ambiguity Clinical fallacy Shelters Order of Protection Restraining Order Pro arrest directives No drop prosecution policy Elder abuse Secondary prevention programs Primary prevention programs

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