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Examining the Father-Child Relationship: Intact vs. Not Intact Families and Child Outcomes of Academic Performance, Conduct, and Self-Esteem Ashley Recker.

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Presentation on theme: "Examining the Father-Child Relationship: Intact vs. Not Intact Families and Child Outcomes of Academic Performance, Conduct, and Self-Esteem Ashley Recker."— Presentation transcript:

1 Examining the Father-Child Relationship: Intact vs. Not Intact Families and Child Outcomes of Academic Performance, Conduct, and Self-Esteem Ashley Recker Hanover College Hanover, IN

2 Intact vs. Not Intact Intact families: Biological father and biological mother either living together or married. Intact families: Biological father and biological mother either living together or married. Not intact families: Biological father and biological mother are either divorced, separated, or the biological father/other male influence is nonexistent. Not intact families: Biological father and biological mother are either divorced, separated, or the biological father/other male influence is nonexistent.

3 Parenting Styles Parenting styles are normal variations in the ways in which parents socialize and control their children. Parenting styles are normal variations in the ways in which parents socialize and control their children. AuthoritativeAuthoritarian PermissiveUninvolved Responsiveness High Low Demandingness Low High (Baumrind, 1991; Shaffer, 1999)

4 Responsiveness and Affect The amount of support and affection a parent displays towards their child. The amount of support and affection a parent displays towards their child. (Shaffer, 1999) Associated with predicting social competence and psychosocial development. Associated with predicting social competence and psychosocial development. (Darling, 1999) When not responsive: children tend to associate with deviant peers and show greater levels of externalizing behaviors. When not responsive: children tend to associate with deviant peers and show greater levels of externalizing behaviors. (Kim, Hethering, & Reiss, 1999)

5 Hostile and neglectful parenting styles are associated with aggression, deviant behaviors, and adjustment problems. Hostile and neglectful parenting styles are associated with aggression, deviant behaviors, and adjustment problems. Warm and responsive parenting styles predict social competence and cooperative behavior. Warm and responsive parenting styles predict social competence and cooperative behavior. (Chen, Liu, & Li, 2000)

6 The Difference between Mother and Father Roles Mothers usually take on custodial/routine caregiving roles (e.g., feeding and cleaning). Mothers usually take on custodial/routine caregiving roles (e.g., feeding and cleaning). Fathers tend to engage in more social stimulation and interactive activities (e.g., play and helping with homework). Fathers tend to engage in more social stimulation and interactive activities (e.g., play and helping with homework). (Jain, Belsky & Crnic, 1996; Yeung, et al., 2001)

7 Benefits of the Father Father availability and involvement is associated with academic success as well as socio-emotional and cognitive well- being/gains in school- age children. Father availability and involvement is associated with academic success as well as socio-emotional and cognitive well- being/gains in school- age children. (Howard, & Lefever, et al., 2006)

8 More frequent and regular contact with the father is associated with more intense relationships and fewer adjustment problems in children. More frequent and regular contact with the father is associated with more intense relationships and fewer adjustment problems in children. (Dunn, Cheng, O’Connor, & Bridges, 2004)

9 So, why is the father-child relationship important? Since 1960, the number of births to unmarried mothers has increased 6 times. Since 1960, the number of births to unmarried mothers has increased 6 times. Fathers may act as a buffer to children whose mothers are high risk. Fathers may act as a buffer to children whose mothers are high risk. (Howard, Lefever, Borkowski, & Whitman, 2006)

10 Even in intact families, the level of father-child engagement decreases with age. Even in intact families, the level of father-child engagement decreases with age. A father’s earnings have a negative effect on their level of involvement with their children during the week. A father’s earnings have a negative effect on their level of involvement with their children during the week. On weekends this effect is positive. On weekends this effect is positive. (Yeung & Sandberg, et al., 2001)

11 Research Question Does family status (intact or not intact) effect child outcomes in the areas of academic performance, conduct, and self-esteem? Does family status (intact or not intact) effect child outcomes in the areas of academic performance, conduct, and self-esteem?

12 It is Hypothesized that…. Individuals of intact families will have more positive outcomes than those of not intact families in regards to academic performance, conduct, and self-esteem. Individuals of intact families will have more positive outcomes than those of not intact families in regards to academic performance, conduct, and self-esteem. Individuals whose father-child relationship is more negative, regardless of whether or not they come from intact or not intact families, will report more negative outcomes in academic performance, conduct, and self-esteem. Individuals whose father-child relationship is more negative, regardless of whether or not they come from intact or not intact families, will report more negative outcomes in academic performance, conduct, and self-esteem.

13 Method Participants: Participants: 232 males and females 232 males and females Online self report questionnaire: Online self report questionnaire: Demographics Demographics Father-Child Relationship Father-Child Relationship Academic Performance Academic Performance Self-Esteem Self-Esteem Conduct Conduct

14 Measuring the Father-Child Relationship Father Autonomy Support – 9 items Father Autonomy Support – 9 items Father Involvement – 6 items Father Involvement – 6 items Father Warmth – 6 items Father Warmth – 6 items (The POPS Scale for College Students: Grolnick, Ryan & Deci, 1991) (Cronbach’s Alpha= 0.919)

15 Academic Performance, Self-Esteem, & Conduct Academic performance: Academic performance: Author created scale Author created scale Self-Esteem: Self-Esteem: Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965) Conduct: Conduct: Self-Report Delinquency Scale Self-Report Delinquency Scale (Elliot & Ageton, 1980)

16 Results Original number of data entries: Original number of data entries: Deleted: Deleted: 19 - Did not complete 19 - Did not complete 6 - Replicated 6 - Replicated 16 - Age (under 18) 16 - Age (under 18) Final number of participants: Final number of participants:

17 Demographics Family Status: Family Status: 62% Intact 62% Intact 38% Not Intact 38% Not Intact 8% father deceased 8% father deceased 2.6% step father or other male figure present 2.6% step father or other male figure present

18 Intact Not Intact Not Intact Age: % 70.5% 70.5% % 21.6% 21.6% % 7.6% 8.0% 8.0% Gender: Male 31.0% 28.0% 28.0% Female Female69.0% 72.0% 72.0% Ethnicity: White 74.3% 70.5% 70.5% Afr. Am. Afr. Am.9.0% 10.2% 10.2% Other Other15.4% 11.3% 11.3% Table 1. Demographics

19 Intact Intact Not Intact Not Intact Biological Father 93.0% 85.2% 85.2% Step Father 0.0% 0.0% 6.8% 6.8% Sig. Other Male Figure 6.0% 6.0% 2.3% 2.3% No Male Figure 0.0% 0.0% 5.7% 5.7% Table 2. Who Survey is About

20 Comparing Family Status and Father-Child Relationships Father Warmth: Father Warmth: t(230)=2.72, p =.007 t(230)=2.72, p =.007 Intact M= 4.69, Not Intact M=4.30 Intact M= 4.69, Not Intact M=4.30 Father Autonomy Support: Father Autonomy Support: t(230)=2.13, p =.03 t(230)=2.13, p =.03 Intact M= 4.37, Not Intact M=4.10 Intact M= 4.37, Not Intact M=4.10 Father Involvement: Father Involvement: t(230)=4.70, p <.001 t(230)=4.70, p <.001 Intact M= 4.69, Not Intact M=4.30 Intact M= 4.69, Not Intact M=4.30

21 Family Status and Child Outcomes Academic Performance: Not significant Academic Performance: Not significant Number of times held back Number of times held back GPA GPA Highest level of education Highest level of education Tutoring/Academic Help Tutoring/Academic Help Involvement in extracurricular activity Involvement in extracurricular activity

22 Conduct: Not significant Conduct: Not significant Assault Assault Robbery Robbery Drug Use Drug Use Alcohol Use Alcohol Use Disorderly Conduct Disorderly Conduct Self Esteem: Not significant Self Esteem: Not significant

23 Father-Child Relationships and Child Outcomes Self-esteem: Self-esteem: r= 0.196, p= r= 0.196, p= Involvement in extracurricular activity: Involvement in extracurricular activity: r= , p= 0.01 r= , p= 0.01

24 What this means: Family status has no significant impact on child outcomes. Family status has no significant impact on child outcomes. Academic performance Academic performance Conduct Conduct Self-esteem Self-esteem Family status does influence father-child relationships. Family status does influence father-child relationships. Intact families= increased father warmth, father autonomy support, and father involvement. Intact families= increased father warmth, father autonomy support, and father involvement.

25 The father-child relationship is important regardless of family status Father-child relationships do influence some child outcomes. Father-child relationships do influence some child outcomes. Father Autonomy Support, Involvement, and Warmth all impact: Father Autonomy Support, Involvement, and Warmth all impact: Involvement in extracurricular activity Involvement in extracurricular activity Self-esteem Self-esteem

26 Limitations It is difficult to classify family status. It is difficult to classify family status. E.g. Married but not living together, Married/living under the same roof but father deceased. E.g. Married but not living together, Married/living under the same roof but father deceased. Measures of the Father-Child relationship are perceived by the child. Measures of the Father-Child relationship are perceived by the child. Study does not include young children. Study does not include young children. Family status may play a greater role in younger years when parents are the main support system. Family status may play a greater role in younger years when parents are the main support system.

27 Future Research Age Age Children vs. Adults Children vs. Adults Young Adults vs. Older Adults Young Adults vs. Older Adults Include ratings by parents for involvement, warmth, autonomy support. Include ratings by parents for involvement, warmth, autonomy support. If possible, include teacher ratings for conduct and academic performance. If possible, include teacher ratings for conduct and academic performance. Continue to explore the impact of the father-child relationship in regards to family status. Continue to explore the impact of the father-child relationship in regards to family status.

28 References Baumrind, D. (1991). The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use. Journal of Early Adolescence, 11(1), Chen, X., Liu, M., & Li, D., (2000). Parental warmth, control, and indulgence and their relations to adjustment in Chinese children: A longitudinal study. Journal of Family Psychology, 14(3), Darling, N., (1999). Parenting Style and Its Correlates. Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education. Dunn, J. Cheng, H., O’Connor, T., & Bridges, L. (2004). Children’s perspectives on their relationships with their nonresident fathers: Influences, outcomes and implications. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(3), Elliot, D. & Ageton, S. (1980). Reconciling race and class differences in self-reported and official estimates of delinquency. American Sociological Review, 45, Grolnick, W., Ryan, M., & Deci, E. (1991). Inner resources for school achievement: Motivational mediators of children’s perceptions of their parents. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83(4), Howard, K., Lefever, J., Borkowski, J., & Whitman, T. (2006). Father’s influence in the lives of children with adolescent mothers. Journal of Family Psychology, 20(3), Kim, J., Hetherington, M., & Reiss, D. (1999). Associations among family relationships, antisocial peers, and adolescents’ externalizing behaviors: Gender and family type differences. Child Development, 70(5), Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Shaffer, D. (1999). Developmental Psychology, Childhood and Adolescence (5th ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. Yeung, J., Sandberg, J., & Davis-Kean, P. (2001). Children’s time with fathers in intact families. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 63(1),

29 Questions?


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